1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Combretum Loefl.
      1. Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Generally a small tree 5–7 m. high, sometimes 10–17 m. high, sometimes shrubby; bark dark grey to black, rough, reticulately fissured (resembling crocodile skin); branchlets with bark peeling in grey fibrous strips.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite (sometimes 3-verticillate in coppice regrowth); lamina generally coriaceous, sometimes papyraceous (variant “A”), narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate-elliptic or ovate-triangular or broadly ovate-elliptic or obovate or obovate-elliptic, up to 21 cm. long and 12.5 cm. wide, apex acute or obtuse, base cuneate or rounded or cordate, typically pubescent above and densely grey tomentose beneath, sometimes indumentum a dark velvety brown on the old leaves and pinkish on the young leaves, some forms almost glabrous above and pubescent beneath or glabrous on both surfaces (except for the scales); scales silvery or reddish, contiguous or almost so, but often hidden by the indumentum; lateral nerves 6–12 pairs, the parallel reticulation usually very prominent beneath (but less so in apparently transitional forms); petiole usually 2–3 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes up to 7(–11) cm. long, occasionally forming panicles by suppression of the upper leaves; peduncles 1–2 cm. long, pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow or greenish yellow, fragrant.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle tomentose; upper receptacle campanulate, 1.5–3 mm. long, 2–3 mm. in diameter, tomentose, lepidote.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly deltate.
    Corolla
    Petals sometimes minute or absent, irregularly obovate-deltate to reniform, 0.5–1 mm. long and wide, apex ciliate.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 5–6 mm. long, inserted at the margin of the disk; anthers 1 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk with a very short pilose free margin less than 0.5 mm. wide.
    Style
    Style 3–5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit (fig. 5/14, p. 16) subcircular to elliptic in outline, 1.3–2.3(–2.5) cm. long, 1.5–2.3(–2.5) cm. wide, pale straw coloured to yellow-brown, lepidote and tomentose (especially on the body) to nearly glabrous (except for the scales); wings papyraceous (especially variant “A”); apical peg up to 1 mm. long; stipe 2.5 mm. long.
    Germination
    Cotyledons 2, arising at or below soil-level.
    Scales
    Scales (fig. 2/14, p. 13) discoid with marginal cells usually concave, ± (75–)90–120 (–130) μ in diameter, usually with 8 radial walls and typically 8 (rarely 0) tangential walls and sometimes with many to several extra radial walls; marginal cells 8–11 (–16); cell walls clear and usually very thick; cells usually opaque.
    Habitat
    Widespread throughout the wooded grassland and bushland areas of East Africa, often forming pure stands on hillsides; 30–2300 m.
    Distribution
    throughout the wooded grassland areas of tropical and southern Africaalso in the Yemen (the only African species found outside Africa) K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle 1·5–2 mm. long, tomentose; upper receptacle 1·3–3 x 2–3 mm., campanulate, tomentose.
    Calyx
    Sepals 0·5–1 mm. long, broadly deltate.
    Corolla
    Petals 0·5–1 x 0·5–1 mm., sometimes minute or absent, irregularly obovate-deltate to reniform, ciliate at the apex.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 5–6 mm. long, inserted at the edge of the disk; anthers 1 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk with a very short pilose free margin less than 0·5 mm. long.
    Style
    Style 5 mm. long, not expanded at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1·5–2(2·5) x 1·5–2(2·5) cm., subcircular to elliptic in outline, lepidote and tomentose (especially on the body) to nearly glabrous (except for scales), apical peg up to 1 mm. long (often much shorter), wings 5–7 mm. broad, stipe 2–3(5) mm. long.
    Cotyledons
    Cotyledons 2, 2·5 x 2·5–3·5 cm., subcircular to transversely elliptic, arising at or below soil level; petioles 3·5–4 cm. long.
    Scales
    Scales ± contiguous on the areolae of the lower surface of the leaf, c. 75(90)–120(130)µ in diam., ± circular with marginal cells usually concave, usually with 8 radial walls and typically 8 (rarely 0) tangential walls and sometimes with many to several extra radial walls; marginal cells 8–11(16); cell-walls clear and usually very thick; cells usually opaque.
    Habit
    Semi-deciduous tree usually up to 8(17) m. high or shrub; crown rounded to flat-rounded; bark black-brown to grey-brown, rough, fissured; branchlets tomentose to almost glabrous with bark coming off in fibrous strips.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; lamina up to 14(16) x 9 cm., narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate-elliptic or obovate or obovate-elliptic, typically densely grey-tomentose (often drying dark-velvety-brown) but almost glabrous in some forms, lepidote but scales often hidden by the indumentum, reticulation usually very prominent beneath (but less so in some apparently transitional forms), apex acute or obtuse and often mucronate or apiculate, base usually rounded to subcordate; lateral nerves 6–12 pairs; petiole usually 2–3 mm. long (up to 9 mm.) leaving after leaf-fall rather prominent circular projections on the stem.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes up to 7(11) cm. long occasionally forming panicles by suppression of the upper leaves; rhachis tomentose; bracts 1–2 mm. long, filiform, caducous; peduncles 1–2 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, yellow or greenish-yellow.
    [FWTA]

    Combretaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Savannah tree with relatively straight bole, to 30 ft. (rarely to 50 ft.) high
    Bark
    Characteristic dark grey deeply fissured bark
    Corolla
    Petals and stamens cream.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 30, 2010 Sibindo, A.S. [5], Mozambique K000546044
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13490], Cameroon K000580112
    Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1913], Cameroon K000746342
    Apr 1, 2002 Pollard, B.J. [441], Cameroon K000746343
    Aug 1, 1994 Stuhlmann [774], Tanzania K000226502 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1992 Sim, T.R. [6068], Mozambique K000226526 isotype
    Jan 1, 1985 Schimper [582], Ethiopia K000226347 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1980 Kersting [485], Togo K000232571 syntype
    Nov 1, 1971 Kotschy [381], Ethiopia K000226464 Unknown type material
    Nov 1, 1971 Kotschy [381], Ethiopia K000226465
    Apr 1, 1969 Hildebrandt, J.M. [2362], Kenya K000226503 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1969 Schimper [1358], Ethiopia K000226345 isotype
    Mar 1, 1969 Schimper [1358], Ethiopia K000226346 isotype
    Mar 1, 1969 Schimper [1358], Ethiopia K000226344 isotype
    Feb 1, 1969 Holst, C. [2539], Tanzania K000226500 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Miller, O.B. [510], Botswana K000489110
    Jan 1, 1967 Reyneke, J. [414], Botswana K000489114
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4376], Angola K000226517 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4315], Angola K000226518
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4316], Angola K000226519
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4318], Angola K000226520
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4312], Angola K000226521
    Jan 1, 1961 Baum, H. [155], Angola K000226522 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1961 Baum, H. [127], Angola K000226523 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1961 Baum, H. [947], Angola K000226524 Unknown type material
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8053], Zambia 25009.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7977], Zambia 25184.000
    Prevett, P.F. [12], Nigeria 3720.000
    Galpin, E.E. [1112], South Africa K000226654 Unknown type material
    Schimper [622], Ethiopia K000226339
    Schimper [622], Ethiopia K000226342
    Schimper [622], Ethiopia K000226341 Unknown type material
    Schimper [767], Ethiopia K000226343
    Schimper [582], Ethiopia K000226348
    Schimper [582], Ethiopia K000226349
    K000226340 Unknown type material
    Holst, C. [8855], Tanzania K000226497 lectotype
    Holst, C. [2165], Tanzania K000226498 lectotype
    Holst, C. [2916], Tanzania K000226499 Unknown type material
    Zeyher [575] K000226652 Unknown type material
    Burke [521], South Africa K000226653 Unknown type material
    Buchanan, J., C.M.G. [859], Malawi K000226525 lectotype
    Lea, A. [s.n.], Botswana K000489113
    Gueinzius [567], South Africa K000226651 Unknown type material
    Robecchi Bricchetti [25], Somalia K000226466 Unknown type material
    Hansen, O.J. [3187], Botswana K000489111
    Mott, P.J. [230], Botswana K000489109
    de Beer, J.S. [674], Botswana K000489112
    Timberlake, J. [4936], Mozambique K000545286
    Brunt, M.A. [878], Cameroon K000050781
    Brunt, M.A. [988], Cameroon K000050782
    Hildebrandt [840], Somalia Combretum somalense K000226467 Unknown type material
    Volkens, G. [1662], Tanzania Combretum gueinzii K000226501

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 15: 431 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.
    • Liben, L. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Combretaceae: 1-105. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 15: 431 (1827).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exell in Kirkia 7: 189 (1970).
    • Liben in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Combr.: 67 (1968).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 145 (1961).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 88 (1952).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: 201 (1950).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 137 (1949).
    • G. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. 15: 431 (1827)
    • R.Br, in Salt, Voy. Abyss. App.: lxiv (1814), nom. nud.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0