1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Combretum Loefl.
      1. Combretum paniculatum Vent.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Limpopo.

    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Usually a vigorous evergreen climber or a scrambling shrub in absence of support (occasionally a bush—perhaps intermediates or hybrids with C. platypetalum); bark grey to grey-black; branchlets usually rufous-tomentose at first but soon glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; lamina up to 12(18) x 8(9·5) cm., usually c. 1 1/2 times as long as broad, chartaceous, oblong-elliptic, usually glabrous or nearly so, apex rounded or acuminate, base obtuse to subcordate; lateral nerves 4–6(8) pairs; petiole up to 3 cm. long, the base often persistent and becoming spiny.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or axillary panicles; rhachis usually fuscous- or fulvous-tomentose; bracts c. 4 mm. long, very narrowly ovate-elliptic.
    Flowers
    Flowers red, 4(5)-merous, sessile or very shortly pedicellate.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle up to 4(5) mm. long, usually somewhat constricted above and below the ovary, densely fulvous- or rufous-(more rarely silvery-)pubescent; upper receptacle 4–5 x 2–3 mm. (in our area), campanulate, densely fulvous- or rufous- (or more rarely silvery-) pubescent, sometimes nearly glabrous towards the apex.
    Calyx
    Sepals usually reduced to short teeth, sometimes triangular.
    Corolla
    Petals red, c. 2·5 x 2·5 mm., subcircular to ovate, usually somewhat overlapping at first and ± connivent.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 7–8 mm. long, usually red; anthers 0·9 mm. long, red or purplish.
    Disc
    Disk rather inconspicuous, without a free margin.
    Style
    Style 6–8 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4(5)-winged, 2–2·5 x 1·5–2 cm. (in our area, sometimes larger elsewhere), subcircular to oblong-elliptic in outline, sparsely pubescent on the body, apical peg usually absent, wings up to 9 mm. broad, thin, stipe 5–10 mm. long.
    [FWTA]

    Combretaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Scandent shrub, becoming lofty liane in forest
    Ecology
    Extending into the savannah regions in fringing forest and thickets
    Petiole
    Petioles becoming spines
    Flowers
    Petals and stamens bright red; flowers often produced when plant is leafless.
    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    A vigorous climber or scrambling or ± prostrate shrub; branchlets usually rufous tomentose at first, becoming glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; lamina chartaceous, subcircular, oblong-elliptic, ovate-oblong or obovate-oblong, up to 18 cm. long and 9.5 cm. wide, apex rounded or acuminate, base obtuse to subcordate, either glabrous or nearly so (in East Africa) or greyish (drying silvery) or fulvous tomentose when young and becoming glabrescent; lateral nerves 4–8 pairs; petiole up to 3 cm. long, base often persistent and becoming spiny.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of terminal or axillary panicles usually appearing before the leaves; rhachis usually fuscous or fulvous tomentose; bracts ± 2 mm. long, often transitional to foliage leaves.
    Flowers
    Flowers (fig. 6/29, p. 50)red, 4- or 5-merous.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle up to 4(–5) mm. long, usually somewhat constricted above and below the ovary, densely fulvous or rufous pubescent (more rarely silvery sericeous tomentose); upper receptacle campanulate (sometimes almost cup-shaped in W. Africa), 2.5–6.5(–8) mm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, (in E. Africa the 4-merous forms range from 3–6 mm. long, the 5-merous from (4.5–)5–6(–8) mm. long), densely to lightly fulvous or rufous or greyish or silvery pubescent, often becoming glabrescent (the 5-merous forms are invariably glabrescent).
    Calyx
    Sepals variable, from almost inconspicuous to triangular.
    Corolla
    Petals red, subcircular to ovate, usually somewhat overlapping at first and ± connivent, ± 2.5 mm. long and wide, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 7–18 mm. long, usually red; anthers 0.9 mm. long, red or purplish.
    Disc
    Disk inconspicuous, without a free margin.
    Fruits
    Fruit (fig. 7/29, p. 51) 4- or 5-winged, subcircular to oblong-elliptic or broadly elliptic in outline, 2–4(–5) cm. long, 1.5–4 cm. wide, body sparsely pubescent to glabrous; wings thin; stipe 5–10 mm. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Combretum paniculatum Vent. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2014 Luke, W.R.Q. [9906], Mozambique K000812463
    Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [3053], Cameroon K000050784
    Jun 1, 1990 Meurillon, A. [CNAD 568], Cameroon K000050789
    Apr 1, 1970 Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000232608 holotype
    Zambia 3238.000
    Troupin, G. [4771], Congo 24465.000
    Maitland, T.D. [887], Cameroon K000050785
    Maitland, T.D. [887], Cameroon K000050786
    Carvalho [s.n.], Mozambique K000226605 Unknown type material
    Mann [203], Bioko K000232580
    Zenker [177], Cameroon K000226391 lectotype
    Don, Sierra Leone K000232583
    Soyaux, H. [86], Angola K000226390
    Dundas, J. [FHI 13990], Cameroon K000050787
    Dundas, J. [FHI 13990], Cameroon K000050788
    Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000232609
    Thonner, Fr. [245], Congo K000226389
    Goetze, W. [23], Tanzania Combretum abbreviatum K000226476
    Goetze, W. [23], Tanzania Combretum abbreviatum K000226477

    First published in Choix Pl.: t. 58 (1808)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Liben, L. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Combretaceae: 1-105. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 263.
    • Engl. & Diels Monogr. Afr. Combretac. 70
    • —F.T.A. 2: 425
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exell in Kirkia 7: 212 (1970).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 134 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 207 (1949).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony ed. 2: 32 (1936).
    • Burtt Davy, Check-lists Brit. Emp. 1, Uganda: 36 (1935).
    • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 3: 70, t. 21/C (1899), excl. var. virgatum.
    • Laws, in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 425 (1871).
    • Vent., Choix Pl., sub. t. 58 (1808).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0