1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Alopecurus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (16), or perennial (26). Rhizomes absent (23), or short (7), or elongated (10). Stolons absent (39), or present (1). Culms erect (25/36), or geniculately ascending (19/36), or decumbent (5/36); 3-30.77-120 cm long; without nodal roots (2/4), or rooting from lower nodes (3/4). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or sparse (2/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (3), or linear (38); stiff (1), or firm (38), or flaccid (1); without exudate (39), or pruinose (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (18), or an inflated leaf-sheath (25); exserted (37), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Peduncle cylindrical at apex (1/2), or tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/2). Panicle spiciform (37), or glomerate (1), or capitate (6). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear (1), or oblong (39).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (16), or oblong (24), or ovate (2); laterally compressed; 1.8-4.281-8.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (16), or oblong (24), or ovate (2); laterally compressed; 1.8-4.281-8.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes free (5), or connate along margins below (36); shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (17), or exceeding apex of florets (22); parallel to lemmas (29), or recurved at apex (12). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (19), or elliptic (4), or oblong (15), or ovate (2); not gibbous (39), or gibbous (1); 1-1.002-1.1 length of upper glume; membranous (37), or cartilaginous (2), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled; wingless (34), or winged on keel (6); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (39). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (39). Lower glume surface glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (10), or pilose (13), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex truncate (2), or obtuse (8), or acute (24), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (2), or cuspidate (1); muticous (27), or mucronate (6), or awned (10). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (18), or elliptic (5), or oblong (15), or ovate (2); not gibbous (39), or gibbous (1); 0.8-1.101-1.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (37), or cartilaginous (2), or coriaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (38), or hyaline margins (2); 1-keeled; wingless (34), or winged on keel (6); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (39). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (1), or ciliolate (5), or ciliate (34). Upper glume lateral veins convergent at apex (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (10), or pilose (13), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex truncate (2/39), or obtuse (9/39), or acute (22/39), or acuminate (6/39), or attenuate (1/39), or setaceously attenuate (2/39), or cuspidate (1/39); muticous (27), or mucronate (6), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (5), or oblong (20), or ovate (14); membranous; keeled; 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (8), or 5 -veined (30). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (34), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (3), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (39), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins free (8), or connate below (33); eciliate (38), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (38), or erose (2); truncate (20), or obtuse (13), or acute (7), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (1); without ornament (39), or pubescent (1); muticous (3), or awned (38); 1 -awned (38/38). Principal lemma awn dorsal (38/38); straight (14/38), or curved (4/38), or geniculate (24/38). Palea present (15), or absent or minute (26); 0.5-0.6375-0.9 length of lemma; 1 -veined (6/6); 1-keeled (4/15), or 2-keeled (11/15). Palea keels eciliate (13/15), or ciliate (2/15).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (39/39). Anthers 2 (1/39), or 3 (38/39). Stigmas plumose (4), or pubescent (36). Ovary glabrous (36/36).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (37/37). Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (36/36).
    Distribution
    Europe (15), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (34), or Tropical Asia (7), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (8), or South America (8), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Antipodean Is., Bermuda, Canary Is., Chatham Is., Crozet Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Kerguelen, Malaya, Marion-Prince Edward, Mexico Northeast, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Queensland, Rhode I., Senegal, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

    Alopecurus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3780], India K001119991
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3780], Nepal K001119992
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3780], India K001119990

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 60 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0