1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Anthoxanthum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [KBu]

    Mashau A. C. 2016. A synopsis of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae: Pooideae: Poeae) in southern Africa and description of a new subspecies. Kew Bulletin 71:18. DOI 10.1007/S12225-016-9629-6

    Type
    Type species: Anthoxanthum odoratum L.
    Habit
    An annual or perennial, tufted to decumbent; stoloniferous or rhizomatous; sometimes aromatic.
    Leaves
    Leaf blade linear, expanded and often folded; ligule an unfringed membrane
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a narrow, spike-like panicle; spikelets solitary, sessile or pedicelled
    Spikelets
    Spikelet moderately laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, similar, membranous with hyaline margins, glabrous to hairy, awnless; lower glume 1 – 5-nerved; upper glume 3-nerved
    Florets
    Florets 3, lower 2 florets male or sterile with lower lemma(s) longer than the uppermost lemma, membranous, hairy, 5 – 7-nerved, apex 2-lobed, lowest lemma with a short straight awn from above middle of the back, second lemma awned from near the base, awn geniculate; uppermost floret bisexual, lemma glabrous, awnless; palea without keels, usually 1-nerved
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 0
    Stamens
    Stamens 2 or 3 (rarely)
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous; styles long, plumose
    Fruits
    Caryopsis hilum short; embryo small.
    Note
    x = 5 (polyploidy). C3; XyMS+.
    Distribution
    species. ± 20. north temperate regions of the world and the mountains of tropical africa. apart from the african species, the genus is found in europe, asia and north america; ± 4 in southern africa (1 naturalised), lesotho, south africa: mpumalanga, free state, kwazulu-natal, eastern and western cape.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Inflorescences
    Panicles contracted, spike-like
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3-flowered, the 2 lowest florets reduced to sterile (rarely ♂) lemmas, the uppermost hermaphrodite; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, not, or scarcely, produced; glumes membranous with hyaline margins, the upper as long as the spikelet, the lower about half as long; sterile lemmas narrowly oblong, brown, hairy, bilobed, the lower with a short straight awn from above the middle of the back, the upper with a geniculate awn from below the middle; fertile lemma rotund, shorter than the sterile lemmas, cartilaginous; palea as long as the lemma, 1-nerved; stamens 2; stigmas 2, pubescent.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (1), or elongated (6). Culms erect (7/10), or geniculately ascending (5/10), or decumbent (2/10), or rambling (2/10); slender (2/5), or weak (3/5); 7-43.41-120 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (12/13), or sparse (3/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (15), or lanceolate (2); stiff (2), or firm (12), or flaccid (3); without scent (4), or aromatic (13). Leaf-blade apex muticous (16), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1). Panicle open (3), or contracted (7), or spiciform (9). Racemes single (1/1); lanceolate (1/1); paucilateral (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong (9/9).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (7), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or obovate (1); laterally compressed; 2.49-6.801-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (7), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or obovate (1); laterally compressed; 2.49-6.801-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (16); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or ovate (14); 0.5-0.6418-0.9 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (15), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (14), or 3 -veined (3), or 4-5 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or distinct (3). Lower glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (7), or acuminate (10); muticous (16), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (7), or elliptic (5), or oblong (2), or ovate (4), or obovate (1); 1.5-2.626-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (16), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (13), or hyaline margins (3), or scarious margins (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex acute (10), or acuminate (8); muticous (15), or mucronate (3).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (5), or barren (15); with palea (5), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or oblong (16); 1.3-1.85-2.8 length of fertile lemma; membranous (5), or chartaceous (10), or scarious (2); 3 -veined (1/14), or 4 -veined (2/14), or 5 -veined (13/14); emarginate (3/15), or truncate (1/15), or obtuse (11/15); muticous (1), or awned (16). Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (6), or ovate (3), or orbicular (10); cartilaginous; without keel; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex emarginate (4), or obtuse (13); muticous, or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (16), or 2 -veined (1); without keels (16), or 2-keeled (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2 (16), or 3 (2). Stigmas 2; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate (1/7), or ellipsoid (6/7), or oblong (1/7). Embryo 0.25-0.31-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe (5), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets solitary, pedicelled, moderately laterally compressed, usually 3-flowered (rarely less), awned; rhachilla disarticulating above the superior glume, not produced beyond the uppermost floret.
    Florets
    Florets heteromorphous, the first and second sterile or male (sometimes the first male and the second sterile), the terminal one always bisexual.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, unequal, persistent, keeled, membranous, 1-3-nerved with the nerves usually prominent, apex acute to acuminate; the inferior about 3/5-3/4 the length of the superior; the superior as long as or longer than the body of the lemmas.
    Flowers
    The first and second lemmas similar and almost equal, membranous, narrowly oblong in profile, 5-7-nerved, strongly laterally compressed, keeled, densely pilose, 2-fid to deeply 2-lobed, awned from the base or from the back or from the sinus; the awns usually unequal, that of the first lemma usually short and inserted 1/3-1/2-way below the apex, usually straight; that of the second lemma as long as or longer than its body, inserted near the base or sometimes around the middle, geniculate. Terminal lemma muticous, much shorter than (1/3-1/2) the preceding ones, expanded broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, faintly 7-1-nerved, obtusely 2-keeled, thinly membranous.
    Palea
    Paleas of the first and second floret, when present, slightly shorter than the lemmas, linear, hyaline, 2-keeled; the one of the terminal floret narrowly oblong, 2-keeled, usually 1-nerved.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules absent.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3 in the male, 2 in the bisexual florets.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, long; stigmas long, rather slender, plumose, exserted from the apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong-elliptic in outline, slightly laterally compressed; embryo c. 1/4 the length of the caryopsis; hilum small, punctiform, basal.
    Habit
    Sweet-scented annuals or perennials, often stoloniferous.
    Ligules
    Ligules membranous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (12), or short (7), or elongated (14). Culms erect (12/15), or geniculately ascending (3/15), or decumbent (1/15); robust (1/1); 5-51.96-130 cm long; firm (32), or wiry (1). Lateral branches lacking (4/5), or ample (1/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (32), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (30), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades persistent (32), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (1), or linear (32); herbaceous (32), or coriaceous (1); stiff (4), or firm (29); without exudate (32), or pruinose (1); without scent (15), or aromatic (18). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (32), or with distinct cross veins (1). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (1/4), or rectangular ribs (3/4). Leaf-blade apex muticous (32), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (21), or contracted (5), or spiciform (7). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (16), or oblong (7), or ovate (7), or cuneate (5); laterally compressed; 2.5-5.753-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (30), or elongated between basal sterile florets (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/5), or pubescent (2/5), or pilose (2/5).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (16), or oblong (7), or ovate (7), or cuneate (5); laterally compressed; 2.5-5.753-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (30), or elongated between basal sterile florets (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/5), or pubescent (2/5), or pilose (2/5).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (14), or reaching apex of florets (17), or exceeding apex of florets (14); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (27), or gaping (6). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (27), or obovate (2); 0.5-0.9355-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (11/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (21/30). Lower glume lateral veins absent (10), or distinct (24). Lower glume apex obtuse (11/31), or acute (25/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (26), or oblate (1), or obovate (2); 0.5-1.336-2.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (29), or scarious margins (4); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (4/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (28/30). Upper glume surface smooth (32), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (12/31), or acute (24/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (30), or barren (3); with palea (30), or without significant palea (3). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (2), or elliptic (21), or oblong (11); 0.9-1.183-1.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous (9), or chartaceous (23), or coriaceous (1); 3-4 -veined (1/25), or 5 -veined (25/25); emarginate (3/30), or truncate (3/30), or obtuse (24/30), or acute (3/30); muticous (10), or mucronate (8), or awned (23). Fertile florets bisexual (28), or female (5). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (5), or ovate (27); membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (30); without keel (32), or keeled (1); 3 -veined (3/16), or 4 -veined (2/16), or 5 -veined (15/16). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (32), or scaberulous (1); eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (27), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (12), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (16), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (32), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; eciliate (29), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex emarginate (1/27), or truncate (1/27), or obtuse (4/27), or acute (23/27); without ornament (31), or pubescent (2); muticous (29), or mucronate (11), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn apical (6/12), or subapical (6/12). Palea 0.8-0.92-1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (26/27), or 3 -veined (1/27); without keels (26), or 1-keeled (7). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (2/14), or 2 (12/14). Anthers 2 (27/32), or 3 (30/32). Stigmas 2 (3/3); plumose (31), or pubescent (2). Ovary unappendaged (32), or beaked (1); glabrous (28/28).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); fusiform (1/3), or ellipsoid (1/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.3-0.45-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/4), or linear (2/4).
    Distribution
    Europe (6), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (10), or North America (6), or South America (9), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina South, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Georgia, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Marquesas, Mexico Northeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Norfolk Is., Oklahoma, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Virginia, Western Australia

    Anthoxanthum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Victor, J. E., Fish, L. & Ellis, R. P. (2007). Anthoxanthum brevifolium Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M. C. (2006). The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. & Victor, J. E. (2005). Anthoxanthum dregeanum (Nees) Stapf. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2014.1. Accessed on 17 March 2015.Google Scholar
    • Fish, L. (2000). Poaceae (Gramineae). In: O. A. Leistner, Seeds plants of southern Africa: families and genera, Strelitzia 10: 659 – 726.Google Scholar
    • Gibbs Russell, G. E., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. & Dallwitz, M. J. (1990). Grasses of southern Africa, Mem. Bot. Surv. South Africa 58.Google Scholar
    • Stapf, O. (1910). Diagnoses africanae: XXXIV. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910(2): 59.Google Scholar
    • Stapf, O. (1899). Gramineae. Flora capensis 7: 465 – 468. Lovell Reeve, London.Google Scholar
    • Nees ab Esenbeck, C. G. D. (1841). Florae Africanae australioris illustrationes monographicae. Prausnitz, Glogau.Google Scholar
    • Trinius, C. B. (1839). Phalaridea. Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 5, 3 (3): 78 – 84.Google Scholar
    • Linnaeus 1753
    • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.Google Scholar
    • Species Plantarum: 28
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 17 (1754).
    • Sp.Pl. 1: 28 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 17 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0