1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Avena L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Temp. Eurasia to Indian Subcontinent, N. Africa to Kenya.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2-several-flowered, rather large, pedicelled, moderately laterally compressed to almost terete, awned; the lower 1-3(-5) florets bisexual, the following smaller in size, male, sterile or reduced to a varying degree; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, or sometimes above the glumes only, pilose or glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, persistent, equal, subequal or sometimes the inferior much shorter, dorsally rounded, membranous, margins hyaline, with the apex acute or acuminate.
    Lemma
    Lemmas usually shorter than or sometimes just as long as the glumes (not including the awns!), rarely exceeding them, 5-9-nerved, awned (muticous in cultivated forms), membraneous at first becoming chartaceous or chartaceous-coriaceous with age but with a scarious apex; with the apex acute to acuminate, more rarely obtuse, 2-dentate to 2-lobed (sometimes the lobes decurrent into bristles); awn dorsal, inserted at the middle or somewhat higher, geniculate, twisted below (straight in some cultivars).
    Flowers
    Callus short, rarely elongated, obtuse to acute, usually hairy in wild species.
    Palea
    Paleas shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-nerved, 2-keeled, thinly membranous.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, relatively large.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Ovary
    Ovary densely pilose.
    Pistil
    Styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Habit
    Annual grasses.
    Ligules
    Ligule a scarious or hyaline membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open secund panicle.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open, or rarely contracted, panicle with large pendulous spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–6-flowered (rarely more), the lower 1–3 florets hermaphrodite, the others ± reduced, the terminal floret barren or vestigial; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and sometimes between the florets, or not at all in cultivated races; glumes lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, equal or almost so, rounded on the back, scarious-membranous or herbaceous-membranous, with thin margins, 7–11-nerved; lemmas lanceolate to ovate or oblong, shorter than or equalling the glumes, rarely exserted, rounded on the back, herbaceous, becoming hardened, 5–9-nerved, with a geniculate (or rarely straight) awn from the back, or awnless in some cultivated races; paleas shorter than the lemmas, 2-keeled; stamens 3; stigmas 2.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect (18), or geniculately ascending (13), or decumbent (2), or prostrate (1); 7-71.73-180 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (13/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (20), or contracted (1). Spikelets pendulous (19/19); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (17), or 3 fertile florets (19), or 4 fertile florets (9), or 5 fertile florets (4), or 6 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (13), or cuneate (8); laterally compressed; 11-24.4-50 mm long; persistent on plant (6), or breaking up at maturity (15); disarticulating below each fertile floret (7/15), or above glumes but not between florets (8/15). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (17), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (6), or evident (12), or elongated (3); glabrous (5/18), or pubescent (1/18), or bearded (12/18); obtuse (19), or acute (1), or pungent (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (17), or 3 fertile florets (19), or 4 fertile florets (9), or 5 fertile florets (4), or 6 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (13), or cuneate (8); laterally compressed; 11-24.4-50 mm long; persistent on plant (6), or breaking up at maturity (15); disarticulating below each fertile floret (7/15), or above glumes but not between florets (8/15). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (17), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (6), or evident (12), or elongated (3); glabrous (5/18), or pubescent (1/18), or bearded (12/18); obtuse (19), or acute (1), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (15/15); shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (18); thinner than fertile lemma (20), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1); parallel to lemmas (2), or gaping (19). Lower glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.9517-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (4), or 6 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (17), or 8 -veined (13), or 9 -veined (15), or 10-11 -veined (4). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (1), or acuminate (20). Upper glume lanceolate (8), or elliptic (13); 0.8-1.366-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (17), or 8 -veined (14), or 9 -veined (18), or 10-11 -veined (4). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (1), or acuminate (20).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous (1), or coriaceous (20); of similar consistency above (1), or much thinner above (20); without keel; 7 -veined (20), or 8 -veined (4), or 9 -veined (5). Lemma lateral veins distinct (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (13), or scaberulous (5), or scabrous (3); glabrous (13), or pilose (11), or villous (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliate (1). Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid, or 3-4 -fid (5); acuminate (1/1); muticous (3), or awned (19); 0 -awned (1/19), or 1 -awned (8/19), or 3 -awned (11/19). Principal lemma awn subapical (1/19), or dorsal (19/19); straight (1/19), or curved (2/19), or geniculate (17/19). Column of lemma awn glabrous (14/17), or hispidulous (1/17), or puberulous (2/17), or pubescent (2/17). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (11/11). Palea 0.5 length of lemma. Palea keels wingless (19), or winged (2); eciliate (4), or ciliolate (14), or ciliate (3). Palea surface glabrous (20), or pubescent (1).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent on apex (1), or pubescent all over (20).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong (1/1). Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    Europe (17), or Africa (14), or Temperate Asia (13), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (3), or North America (4), or South America (7), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Burundi, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Falkland Is., Fiji, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Society Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Georgia, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

    Avena L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 3793], India K001117226
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3793], Nepal K001117225

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 79 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 34 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 79 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Malzev in Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl. Br., Suppl. 38 (1930)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 36 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0