1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Axonopus P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Central U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America, Easter Island.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (83). Rhizomes absent (72), or short (13), or elongated (9). Stolons absent (72), or present (19). Culms erect (36/45), or geniculately ascending (14/45), or decumbent (5/45); robust (14/27), or slender (12/27), or weak (1/27); 6-70.81-260 cm long; firm (85), or wiry (2); without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (7/28), or elliptical in section (23/28). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/3), or swollen (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (18/29), or sparse (7/29), or ample (7/29). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (70), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (17). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (86), or erect (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (71), or a ciliate membrane (13), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades persistent (86), or deciduous at the ligule (6); filiform (3), or linear (84), or lanceolate (9); stiff (21), or firm (66). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (4/4). Leaf-blade apex muticous (86), or pungent (2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (79), or terminal and axillary (11). Racemes single (1), or paired (24), or digitate (70), or borne along a central axis (11); erect (9), or ascending (74), or spreading (21), or drooping (1), or deflexed (1); unilateral. Rhachis wingless (86), or narrowly winged (1); flattened (2/85), or angular (83/85); terminating in a spikelet (86), or barren extension (1). Spikelet packing adaxial; contiguous (86), or lax (1); 2 -rowed (16/16). Raceme-bases brief (86), or linear (2). Spikelets sunken (1), or appressed (86); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (58), or pedicelled (35). Pedicels oblong (3/28), or reduced to a stump (26/28); tip rectangular (1/2), or cupuliform (1/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (9), or elliptic (43), or oblong (32), or ovate (41), or obovate (3); dorsally compressed; 1.1-2.485-5.1 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus glabrous (1/1), or pubescent (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (9), or elliptic (43), or oblong (32), or ovate (41), or obovate (3); dorsally compressed; 1.1-2.485-5.1 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus glabrous (1/1), or pubescent (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two (1); shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (83), or exceeding apex of florets (3); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (86), or gaping (1). Lower glume lanceolate (1/1); 1-5 -veined (1/1). Upper glume elliptic (17/30), or oblong (1/30), or ovate (12/30); 1-1.1-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (82); without keels (28/28); 0-1 -veined (1/85), or 2 -veined (33/85), or 3 -veined (22/85), or 4 -veined (30/85), or 5 -veined (44/85), or 6 -veined (7/85), or 7 -veined (10/85), or 9 -veined (1/85). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (84), or ribbed (3). Upper glume surface glabrous (53), or puberulous (24), or pubescent (25), or pilose (5), or villous (1); with simple hairs (53/54), or tubercle-based hairs (1/54); without hair tufts (86), or with an apical beard (5). Upper glume apex entire (86), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); obtuse (8/11), or acute (3/11).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (17/30), or oblong (1/30), or ovate (12/30); 0.9-1.102-2 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (3/6), or membranous (3/6); 0-1 -veined (1/85), or 2 -veined (34/85), or 3 -veined (22/85), or 4 -veined (31/85), or 5 -veined (45/85), or 6-7 -veined (10/85), or 9 -veined (1/85); without ribs (84), or ribbed (3); obtuse (3/11), or acute (8/11). Fertile lemma linear (2/35), or elliptic (22/35), or oblong (5/35), or ovate (6/35), or obovate (2/35); coriaceous (1), or indurate (86); without keel; 4 -veined (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (77), or papillose (6), or striate (4); without hair tufts (86), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (37/62), or acute (26/62), or acuminate (2/62); without ornament (46), or scabrous (2), or pubescent (43). Palea involute; coriaceous (1), or indurate (86).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (8/8); fleshy (3/3). Anthers 3 (21/21).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (73/73); ellipsoid (3/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (3), or North America (13), or South America (82).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Caespitose or stoloniferous perennials, rarely annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat to involute; ligule short, membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 2-many slender racemes, these digitate or borne upon a short common axis, rarely solitary; rhachis triquetrous, glabrous to villous, bearing single spikelets, their lower lemma adaxial
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to oblong, dorsally compressed, small; lower glume absent; upper glume membranous, as long as the spikelet; lower floret barren, without a palea, resembling the upper glume; upper lemma ± crustaceous, usually obtuse, the margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the obtuse palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic, dorsally compressed
    Distribution
    Species ± 110; tropics, but most of the species confined to South America.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 2–many racemes, mostly subdigitate but sometimes along a central axis, the spikelets single and adaxial.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets thinly biconvex, lanceolate to oblong-elliptic.
    Glume
    Inferior glume absent. Superior glume as long as spikelet; inferior lemma similar, without a palea.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma crustaceous, granulose.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (1). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (1); 3-33.12-78 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (1), or terminal and axillary (1). Racemes single; ascending (1), or drooping (1); unilateral. Rhachis narrowly winged (1), or broadly winged (1); membranous (1/1); folded longitudinally to embrace spikelets; terminating in a barren extension. Spikelet packing adaxial. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.4-2.1-3.1 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.4-2.1-3.1 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume lanceolate (1), or ovate (1); hyaline; without keels; 2 -veined (1/1). Upper glume surface asperulous (1), or scabrous (1). Upper glume apex entire (1), or erose (1); acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; hyaline; 2 -veined; emarginate (1), or acute (1); awned. Fertile lemma oblong (1), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; membranous; of similar consistency above (1), or much thinner above (1); without keel. Lemma margins exposing palea (1), or covering most of palea (1). Lemma apex acute. Palea embraced by lemma (1), or gaping (1); 1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1); 2 -veined. Palea apex dentate.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1). Anthers 2. Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong (1), or ovoid (1), or obovoid (1). Embryo 0.33-0.4325-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1), or elliptic; 0.25 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    South America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 10-75 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate; unilateral. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular. Spikelet packing adaxial; 1 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; turbinate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; turbinate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; spurred; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent; with a transverse fringe of hair. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; membranous; 3 -veined; obtuse. Fertile lemma obovate; indurate. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; pubescent. Palea indurate.
    Distribution
    South America.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Suriname, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, California, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Philippines, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Spain, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Tuamotu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zimbabwe

    Axonopus P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 21, 1953 Glaziou, A.F.M. [22483], Brazil K001086183
    Dec 18, 1953 Glaziou, A.F.M. [17934], Brazil K001086177
    Dec 18, 1953 Glaziou, A.F.M. [17934], Brazil K001086182
    Ball, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001086184
    Hassler, E. [10781], Paraguay K001086174
    Coradin, L. [5086], Brazil K001086169
    Sant'Ana, S.C. [105], Brazil K001086201
    Irwin, H.S. [6770], Brazil K001086215
    Irwin, H.S. [7600], Brazil K001086216
    Irwin, H.S. [6989], Brazil K001086217
    Heringer, E.P. [6190], Brazil K001086209
    Heringer, E.P. [6287], Brazil K001086172
    Eiten, G. [10634], Brazil K001086181
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8900], Brazil K001086218
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5088], Brazil K001086219
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6090], Brazil K001086220
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2855], Brazil K001086190
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2855], Brazil K001086191
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3693], Brazil K001086192
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3742], Brazil K001086193
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3742], Brazil K001086194
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6041], Brazil K001086186
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8971], Brazil K001086187
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3569], Brazil K001086188
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8782], Brazil K001086189
    Costa, J. [1822], Brazil K001086221
    Ferreira, M.C. [1882], Brazil K001086222
    Castellanos, A. [22663], Brazil K001086175
    Filgueiras, T.S. [1147], Brazil K001086213
    Filgueiras, T.S. [901], Brazil K001086207
    Filgueiras, T.S. [905], Brazil K001086173
    Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1962], Brazil K001086202
    Oldenburger, F.H.F. [2110], Brazil K001086203
    Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1953], Brazil K001086205
    Burchell, W.J. [8841], Brazil K001086178
    Burchell, W.J. [8579], Brazil K001086179
    Burchell, W.J. [85912], Brazil K001086180
    Lucas, E.J. [361], Brazil K001086223
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001086214
    Black, G.A. [57-20133], Brazil K001086199
    Cordeiro, J. [2028], Brazil K001086200
    Klein, R.M. [12054], Brazil K001086170
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17983], Brazil K001086210
    Rothery, H.C. [s.n.], French Guiana K001086208
    Eden, M.J. [s.n.], Brazil K001086211
    Eden, M.J. [EM48], Brazil K001086212
    Hoock-Cayenne, J. [s.n.], Suriname K001086198
    Hoock-Cayenne, J. [1372], Guyana K001086195
    Hoock-Cayenne, J. [1295], Guyana K001086196
    Hoock-Cayenne, J. [3750], Guyana K001086197
    Hatschbach, G.M. [56492], Brazil K001086206
    Hatschbach, G.G. [40824], Brazil K001086224
    Hatschbach, G.G. [34232], Brazil K001086164
    Hatschbach, G.G. [33822], Brazil K001086166
    Hatschbach, G.G. [64910], Brazil K001086167
    Hatschbach, G.G. [64894], Brazil K001086168
    Hatschbach, G.G. [45909], Brazil K001086176
    Rosa, R.A. [1501], Brazil K001086171
    Longhi-Wagner [3724], Brazil K001086185
    Nascimento, H.T.S. [1142], Brazil K001086225
    Skvortzov, B.V. [280], Brazil K001086204

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 12 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Gledhill in Bol. Soc. Brot. 40: 125 (1966)
    • in J. West Afr. Sci. Ass. 11: 20 (1966).
    • Black. in Adv. Front. Pl. Sci. 5 (1963)
    • F.T.A. 9: 565 (1919)
    • Ess. Agrost. 12, 154 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Black in Adv. Front. Pl. Sci. 5: 1–186 (1963).
    • Ess. Agrost.: 12 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • G.A. Black in Adv. Front. Pl. Sci. 5: 1–186 (1963)
    • Ess. Agrost.: 12 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0