1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Briza L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit., Europe to Siberia and S. Central China.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, several- to many-flowered, laterally compressed, densely imbricate.
    Florets
    Florets all fertile, hermaphrodite, exserted from the glumes.
    Inflorescences
    Rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets. Inflorescence a loose contracted panicle.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, subequal, 3-9-nerved, persistent.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 7-9-nerved, broadly ovate, obovate to almost reniform from a deeply cordate base, chartaceous, with broad scarious margins all round, horizontally spreading.
    Palea
    Paleas c. 2/3-4/5 the length of the corresponding lemmas, membranous, 2-keeled, with the keels often narrowly winged.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, small, lanceolate-oblong.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis enclosed by the lemma and palea, dorsally compressed; hilum c. 1/2 as long as the caryopsis, linear.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial grasses.
    Ligules
    Ligules membranous.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (20). Rhizomes absent (20), or short (2), or elongated (1). Culms erect, or decumbent (2); 6-51-150 cm long. Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); firm (22), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (18), or contracted (6). Spikelets appressed (1/5), or ascending (1/5), or pendulous (4/5); solitary (22), or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (6/8), or linear (2/8).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-6-20 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (4), or ovate (11), or orbicular (10), or obovate (2), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed (22), or subterete (1); 2-5.463-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (22), or pubescent (1). Floret callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-6-20 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (4), or ovate (11), or orbicular (10), or obovate (2), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed (22), or subterete (1); 2-5.463-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (22), or pubescent (1). Floret callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (10), or orbicular (9); 0.7-0.9478-1 length of upper glume; membranous (18), or chartaceous (3), or herbaceous (2); without keels (5), or 1-keeled (18); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (19), or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (7), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (2), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (22). Lower glume surface smooth (20), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (19), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (9/22), or acute (14/22). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (11), or orbicular (9); 0.6-0.917-1.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (18), or chartaceous (3), or herbaceous (2); with undifferentiated margins (22), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (5), or 1-keeled (18); 3 -veined (16), or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (11), or 7-9 -veined (1). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (20), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (20), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (19), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (12/22), or acute (11/22).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (3), or orbicular (7), or oblate (10), or trullate (1), or obovate (1); without auricles (14), or auriculate at base (8), or thickened on margins at base (1); laterally compressed (1/1); not gibbous (17), or gibbous (6); membranous (6), or chartaceous (4), or herbaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (12); of similar consistency above (19), or much thinner above (4); of similar consistency on margins (5), or much thinner on margins (18); without keel (1), or keeled (22); wingless (18), or winged on margins (5); 3 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (15), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (8), or 8-9 -veined (4). Lemma midvein eciliate (22), or ciliate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (18), or asperulous (1), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (22), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2); with simple hairs (2/3), or capitate hairs (1/3). Lemma margins flat, or involute (1); eciliate (21), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (19), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); truncate (2/14), or obtuse (7/14), or acute (4/14), or cuspidate (3/14); muticous (15), or mucronate (6), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5). Principal lemma awn apical (7/11), or from a sinus (4/11). Palea 0.5-0.791-1 length of lemma; membranous (12), or coriaceous (11); 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (18), or winged (5); smooth (22), or scabrous (1); eciliate (15), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (18), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (21/21); membranous (13/13); truncate (6/13), or acute (7/13). Anthers 1 (13), or 2 (3), or 3 (12). Ovary glabrous (21/21).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (6/15), or oblong (1/15), or ovoid (1/15), or orbicular (6/15), or obovoid (2/15); plano-convex (2/8), or trigonous (6/8). Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (15), or elliptic (8), or linear (1); 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (4), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (2), or North America (4), or South America (21).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or rolled
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a loose or contracted panicle
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several- to many-flowered, slightly laterally compressed, broad, often cordate; glumes persistent, subequal, 3–9-nerved; lemmas closely imbricate, broad, cordate at the base, horizontally spreading, papery with broad scarious margins, 7–9-nerved; paleas shorter than the lemmas, 2-keeled, the keels often winged.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China South-Central, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Ascension, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Burundi, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Delaware, Easter Is., Ecuador, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malaya, Marquesas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tubuai Is., Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Zimbabwe

    Briza L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2846], Brazil K001077946
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [4007], Brazil K001077947
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2861], Brazil K001077950
    Dias-Melo, R. [256], Brazil K001077948
    Araujo, A.C. [1645], Brazil K001077951

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 70 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 32 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 70 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 32 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 70 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0