1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Cephalostachyum Munro

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to S. Central China and Indo-China, Philippines.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (4/14), or leaning (2/14), or scandent (10/14); slender (1/1); 100-881.7-3000 cm long; wiry (1), or woody. Culm-internodes terete (14/14). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement several (2/2). Culm-sheaths tardily deciduous (1/2), or deciduous (1/2); auriculate (5/5). Culm-sheath blade linear (1/8), or lanceolate (3/8), or narrowly ovate (1/8), or ovate (3/8), or triangular (1/8); as wide as sheath at base (1/5), or cordate (4/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (5), or erect (7), or falcate (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (13), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades linear (1), or lanceolate (14), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); herbaceous (13), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (14). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/8), or evident (1/8), or conspicuous (6/8). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (8), or with obscure cross veins (4), or with distinct cross veins (3). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (14/14); globose (7/14), or clustered at the nodes (7/14); in globose clusters (6/7), or oblong clusters (1/7); with glumaceous subtending bracts (7/14), or spathaceous subtending bracts (6/14), or foliaceous subtending bracts (1/14); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (14/14); leafless between clusters (2/2). Fertile spikelets sessile (14/14).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (14/14); with a barren rhachilla extension (11/14), or with diminished florets at the apex (5/14). Spikelets linear (1/14), or lanceolate (12/14), or oblong (1/14), or ovate (1/14); laterally compressed (14/14); 7.47-13.81-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity (14/14); disarticulating below each fertile floret (14/14).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (14/14); with a barren rhachilla extension (11/14), or with diminished florets at the apex (5/14). Spikelets linear (1/14), or lanceolate (12/14), or oblong (1/14), or ovate (1/14); laterally compressed (14/14); 7.47-13.81-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity (14/14); disarticulating below each fertile floret (14/14).
    Glume
    Glumes two (6/14), or several (8/14); persistent (14/14); shorter than spikelet (14/14). Lower glume lanceolate (3/7), or ovate (4/7); membranous (2/2); 1-keeled (1/1); 3 -veined (1/3), or 7-8 -veined (1/3), or 9-11 -veined (2/3). Lower glume surface glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (1/14), or pilose (1/14), or hirsute (1/14). Lower glume apex acuminate (2/3), or attenuate (1/3); muticous (5/7), or mucronate (1/7), or awned (1/7). Upper glume lanceolate (3/14), or ovate (13/14); membranous (2/14), or chartaceous (12/14); without keels (13/14), or 1-keeled (1/14); 7-8 -veined (2/4), or 9 -veined (4/4), or 10-11 -veined (3/4). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (4/14), or hirsute (1/14). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/12), or acute (1/12), or acuminate (8/12), or attenuate (1/12), or cuspidate (1/12); muticous (5/14), or mucronate (5/14), or awned (4/14); 1 -awned (4/4).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (6/14), or ovate (9/14); chartaceous (14/14); without keel (14/14); 5-6 -veined (1/4), or 7 -veined (2/4), or 8 -veined (1/4), or 9 -veined (3/4), or 10-11 -veined (2/4). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (10/14), or pubescent (3/14), or hirsute (1/14). Lemma margins flat (13/14), or convolute (1/14); eciliate (11/14), or ciliate (3/14). Lemma apex entire (13/14), or dentate (1/14); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/13), or acute (1/13), or acuminate (11/13); muticous (4/14), or mucronate (6/14), or awned (6/14); 1 -awned (6/6). Palea not rolled (8/14), or tightly convolute around flower (6/14); 1 length of lemma; chartaceous (14/14); 2 -veined (1/1); 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (2/14), or 2-keeled (12/14). Palea keels separated (1/14), or approximate (13/14); smooth (13/14), or scaberulous (1/14); eciliate (12/14), or ciliate (2/14). Palea surface glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (2/14), or pilose (1/14). Palea apex dentate (5/5); muticous (10/14), or with excurrent keel veins (4/14). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (4/5), or 2 in number (1/5); barren (2/2); rudimentary (2/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (4/5), or awned (1/5).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (1/14), or 2 (1/14), or 3 (13/14); glabrous (3/13), or ciliate (10/13). Anthers 6 (14/14). Stigmas 2 (8/12), or 3 (7/12); plumose (13/14), or pubescent (1/14). Ovary with a steeple-like appendage (14/14); glabrous (9/10), or pubescent on apex (1/10).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (14/14); oblong (2/8), or ovoid (4/8), or orbicular (1/8), or obovoid (4/8).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (12).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Tibet, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    India

    Cephalostachyum Munro appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dransfield, J. [SD1333], Madagascar K000795254
    Dransfield, S. [SD1082], Madagascar K000795250
    Dransfield, S. [SD1335], Madagascar K000795251
    Dransfield, S. [SD1360], Madagascar K000795259

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 138 (1868)

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Schizostachyum.]

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0