1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Chionochloa Zotov

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea, SE. Australia, Lord Howe Islands, New Zealand.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect (23/24), or geniculately ascending (1/24), or rambling (1/24); robust (1/2), or slender (1/2); 15-69-200 cm long. Culm-internodes elliptical in section (1/1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (13), or deciduous at the ligule (9), or deciduous with part of sheath attached (5); aciculate (1), or filiform (4), or linear (20); herbaceous (2), or coriaceous (23); stiff (23), or firm (2). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (21), or pungent (4).
    Inflorescences
    Bisexual (24), or gynodioecious (male, in this context, indicating the bisexual state) (1). Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (21), or contracted (5). Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male inflorescence similar to female (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4 fertile florets (12), or 5 fertile florets (14), or 6 fertile florets (19), or 7 fertile florets (13), or 8 fertile florets (8), or 9 fertile florets (2); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 6-13.54-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous, or pubescent (2). Floret callus brief (1), or evident (1), or elongated (23); pilose (10), or bearded (15).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4 fertile florets (12), or 5 fertile florets (14), or 6 fertile florets (19), or 7 fertile florets (13), or 8 fertile florets (8), or 9 fertile florets (2); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 6-13.54-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous, or pubescent (2). Floret callus brief (1), or evident (1), or elongated (23); pilose (10), or bearded (15).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (23), or reaching apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (24). Lower glume lanceolate; 0.4-0.865-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (23), or chartaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined (17), or 2 -veined (13), or 3 -veined (21), or 4-5 -veined (5). Lower glume lateral veins absent (16), or obscure (12), or distinct (9). Lower glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (4). Lower glume apex entire, or erose (1), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1), or truncate (1), or acute (24), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (6); muticous (24), or mucronate (3), or awned (2). Upper glume lanceolate; 0.8-1.396-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (23), or chartaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined (3), or 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (10), or 4 -veined (9), or 5 -veined (21), or 6 -veined (9), or 7 -veined (10), or 8-9 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (4). Upper glume apex entire, or erose (1), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (24), or acuminate (2), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (7); muticous (24), or mucronate (3), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (1/1); with palea (1/1). Fertile florets bisexual (24), or female (1). Fertile lemma elliptic; membranous; without keel; 5-6 -veined (1/24), or 7 -veined (24/24). Lemma midvein eciliate (9), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (13). Lemma surface smooth (22), or scabrous (3); glabrous (20), or pubescent (2), or pilose (11); hairy on back (7/13), or between veins (6/13). Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1), or lobed (24); 2 -fid; incised 0.1-0.365-0.5 of lemma length; acute (2/2), or setaceously attenuate (2/2); awned; 1 -awned (15), or 2 -awned (1), or 3 -awned (20). Principal lemma awn apical (1), or from a sinus; straight (1), or curved (8), or geniculate (16). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (20/20). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (24), or scabrous (1); ciliolate. Palea surface glabrous (1), or pilose (24). Palea apex muticous (24), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous (24/24); glabrous (1), or ciliate (24). Anthers 2-3 (1/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.5-0.54-0.66 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female (1/1).
    Distribution
    Australasia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Antipodean Is., New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is.

    Chionochloa Zotov appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in New Zealand J. Bot. 1: 87 (1963)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0