1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Chusquea Kunth

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (100), or short (43), or elongated (15); leptomorph (12/57), or pachymorph (45/57). Culms erect (57/137), or geniculately ascending (2/137), or decumbent (2/137), or rambling (1/137), or arching (27/137), or leaning (9/137), or scandent (59/137); reed-like (14/17), or robust (2/17), or slender (1/17); 15-524.8-4000 cm long; firm (5), or wiry (1), or woody (152); without nodal roots (103/109), or with prop roots (2/109), or with root dots on the nodes (1/109), or with aerial roots from the nodes (3/109), or with root thorns from the nodes (4/109). Culm-internodes abbreviated and closely packed at the base (1/1); terete (146/153), or semiterete (1/153), or channelled (4/153), or elliptical in section (2/153). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (7/19), or swollen (12/19); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (12/32), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (20/32). Lateral branches lacking (22), or sparse (2), or suffrutescent (1), or dendroid (134). Branch complement one (4/132), or two (3/132), or three (7/132), or several (43/132), or many (93/132); solitary (2/116), or in a horizontal line (24/116), or in an irregular line (2/116), or in a clump (83/116), or girdling the culm (7/116); with subequal branches (28/59), or 1 branch dominant (33/59), or 2 branches dominant (2/59), or 3 branches dominant (1/59), or interspersed leafless fibrillar branches (4/59); as thick as stem (2/87), or thinner than stem (86/87). Culm-sheaths persistent (49/70), or tardily deciduous (2/70), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (9/70), or deciduous (10/70); without auricles (25/25). Culm-sheath blade inconspicuous (2/77), or linear (7/77), or lanceolate (20/77), or triangular (49/77); narrower than sheath (5/12), or as wide as sheath at base (1/12), or cordate (6/12). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (136), or erect (20), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (131), or a ciliolate membrane (16), or a ciliate membrane (11), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (10), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (138), or with a false petiole (10). Leaf-blades persistent (114), or deciduous at the ligule (43); aciculate (3), or linear (40), or lanceolate (125), or oblong (4), or ovate (8); herbaceous (125), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (30); stiff (30), or firm (128). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/13), or evident (3/13), or conspicuous (7/13). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (117), or with obscure cross veins (30), or with distinct cross veins (20). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (30/30). Leaf-blade apex muticous (156), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (148/149), or bractiferous (1/149); clustered at the nodes (1/1); in untidy tufts (1/1); with glumaceous subtending bracts (1/1); without axillary buds at base of spikelet (1/1); leafless between clusters (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (146/148), or composed of racemes (2/148); terminal (146/148), or terminal and axillary (1/148), or axillary (1/148); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (139/148), or an inflated leaf-sheath (4/148), or a spatheole (3/148), or bracts (7/148); exserted (112/148), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (41/148), or enclosed (1/148). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Panicle open (88/146), or contracted (45/146), or spiciform (12/146), or capitate (6/146). Racemes single (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/2), or many spikelets (1/2); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 3-4 fertile spikelets on each (2/2), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Spikelet packing contiguous (1/2), or lax (1/2). Spikelets appressed (10/13), or spreading (3/13), or deflexed (1/13); solitary (148/148). Fertile spikelets sessile (4/149), or pedicelled (149/149). Pedicels filiform (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets (149/149); 1 fertile florets (149/149); without rhachilla extension (149/149). Spikelets linear (3/149), or lanceolate (46/149), or elliptic (38/149), or oblong (42/149), or ovate (21/149), or cuneate (2/149); laterally compressed (130/149), or subterete (13/149), or dorsally compressed (10/149); 1.66-7.561-15.7 mm long; breaking up at maturity (149/149); disarticulating below each fertile floret (149/149). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (149/149), or elongated between glumes (1/149).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets (149/149); 1 fertile florets (149/149); without rhachilla extension (149/149). Spikelets linear (3/149), or lanceolate (46/149), or elliptic (38/149), or oblong (42/149), or ovate (21/149), or cuneate (2/149); laterally compressed (130/149), or subterete (13/149), or dorsally compressed (10/149); 1.66-7.561-15.7 mm long; breaking up at maturity (149/149); disarticulating below each fertile floret (149/149). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (149/149), or elongated between glumes (1/149).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (15/149), or two (136/149); persistent (136/136); shorter than spikelet (136/136), or reaching apex of florets (2/136); thinner than fertile lemma (115/136), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (21/136). Lower glume linear (1/136), or lanceolate (12/136), or oblong (6/136), or ovate (101/136), or orbicular (10/136), or oblate (7/136); 0.1-0.7482-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1/136), or membranous (115/136), or coriaceous (20/136); without keels (124/135), or 1-keeled (11/135); 0 -veined (60/97), or 1 -veined (43/97), or 2 -veined (6/97), or 3 -veined (9/97), or 4-5 -veined (2/97). Lower glume lateral veins absent (92/136), or obscure (9/136), or distinct (44/136). Lower glume surface smooth (123/136), or asperulous (4/136), or scabrous (10/136); glabrous (115/136), or puberulous (6/136), or pubescent (14/136), or pilose (2/136). Lower glume apex obtuse (55/129), or acute (57/129), or acuminate (17/129), or attenuate (5/129), or setaceously attenuate (1/129), or cuspidate (2/129); muticous (119/136), or mucronate (3/136), or awned (17/136). Upper glume linear (1/136), or lanceolate (13/136), or oblong (7/136), or ovate (103/136), or orbicular (7/136), or oblate (6/136); 0.02-0.2475-1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (47/67), or coriaceous (20/67); with undifferentiated margins (135/136), or scarious margins (1/136); without keels (125/135), or 1-keeled (10/135); 0 -veined (53/96), or 1 -veined (38/96), or 2 -veined (15/96), or 3 -veined (27/96), or 4 -veined (7/96), or 5 -veined (8/96), or 6 -veined (1/96), or 7 -veined (2/96). Upper glume surface smooth (124/136), or asperulous (4/136), or scabrous (9/136); glabrous (111/136), or puberulous (5/136), or pubescent (18/136), or pilose (2/136), or villous (1/136), or hispidulous (1/136), or hispid (1/136). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/130), or truncate (2/130), or obtuse (59/130), or acute (58/130), or acuminate (16/130), or attenuate (5/130), or setaceously attenuate (1/130), or cuspidate (2/130); muticous (114/136), or mucronate (7/136), or awned (19/136); 1 -awned (19/19).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (149/149); with palea (1/149), or without significant palea (149/149). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1/149), or lanceolate (20/149), or elliptic (7/149), or oblong (5/149), or ovate (116/149), or obovate (1/149); 0.25-0.5534-1.1 length of fertile lemma; membranous (3/149), or chartaceous (127/149), or coriaceous (19/149); 0-4-11 -veined; truncate (2/138), or obtuse (6/138), or acute (93/138), or acuminate (23/138), or attenuate (4/138), or setaceously attenuate (8/138), or cuspidate (1/138), or rostrate (1/138); muticous (111/149), or mucronate (29/149), or awned (17/149). Fertile lemma lanceolate (28/149), or elliptic (13/149), or oblong (5/149), or ovate (105/149); coriaceous (149/149); without keel (147/149), or keeled (2/149); 3-7-18 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (147/149), or scabrous (2/149). Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/10), or prominent (7/10); without ribs (148/149), or ribbed (1/149). Lemma surface smooth (130/149), or scaberulous (9/149), or scabrous (13/149); without grooves (148/149), or with longitudinal folds (1/149); glabrous (116/149), or puberulous (9/149), or pubescent (22/149), or pilose (4/149), or setose (1/149); hairy on back (33/36), or between veins (3/36). Lemma margins flat (144/149), or involute (5/149); exposing palea (144/149), or covering most of palea (5/149); eciliate (131/149), or ciliolate (5/149), or ciliate (11/149), or pubescent (2/149). Lemma apex truncate (1/143), or obtuse (6/143), or acute (91/143), or acuminate (24/143), or attenuate (3/143), or setaceously attenuate (4/143), or apiculate (19/143); without ornament (147/149), or pubescent (2/149); muticous (114/149), or mucronate (35/149), or awned (11/149); 1 -awned (11/11). Palea not rolled (143/149), or tightly convolute around flower (6/149); 1-1.005-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (131/149), or coriaceous (18/149); 2 -veined (20/85), or 3 -veined (11/85), or 4 -veined (59/85), or 5 -veined (17/85), or 6 -veined (28/85), or 7-8 -veined (8/85), or 9 -veined (1/85); without keels (17/149), or 1-keeled (1/149), or 2-keeled (131/149). Palea keels separated (101/131), or approximate (8/131), or contiguous above a sulcus (22/131); smooth (130/132), or scaberulous (1/132), or scabrous (1/132); eciliate (131/132), or ciliolate (1/132). Palea surface glabrous (127/149), or puberulous (3/149), or pubescent (16/149), or pilose (3/149). Palea apex dentate (6/6); muticous (134/149), or with excurrent keel veins (13/149), or awned (2/149).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (145/145); membranous (102/102); glabrous (66/145), or ciliate (79/145); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 2 (1/142), or 3 (141/142). Stigmas 2 (138/138). Ovary glabrous (14/14).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (137/137); ellipsoid (1/3), or oblong (2/3); apex unappendaged (117/117). Embryo 0.12-0.2-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (8/8); 0.75-0.9167-1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    North America (18), or South America (149).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Lesser Sunda Is., Sulawesi

    Chusquea Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    McClure, F.A. [21288], Brazil K001106308
    McClure, F.A. [21288], Brazil K001106309
    McClure, F.A. [21277A], Brazil K001106310
    McClure, F.A. [21288], Brazil K001106311
    Hatschbach, G. [51511], Brazil K001106342
    Hatschbach, G. [29043], Brazil K001106321
    Sucre, D. [10910], Brazil K001106334
    Martinelli, G. [10650], Brazil K001106319
    Martinelli, G. [11959], Brazil K001106333
    Silva, J.M. [3804], Brazil K001106332
    Spruce, R. [6093], Peru K000201352
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [10095], Brazil K001106306
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [10095], Brazil K001106307
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [10212], Brazil K001106339
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [10212], Brazil K001106340
    Calderon, C.E. [2189], Brazil K001106315
    Calderon, C.E. [2189], Brazil K001106316
    Calderon, C.E. [2189], Brazil K001106317
    Calderon, C.E. [2189], Brazil K001106318
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1918], Brazil K001106322
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1930], Brazil K001106323
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1931], Brazil K001106327
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1931], Brazil K001106328
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1930], Brazil K001106329
    Lourteig, A. [2191], Brazil K001106325
    Lucas, E.J. [601], Brazil K001106300
    Lucas, E.J. [598], Brazil K001106301
    Lucas, E.J. [561], Brazil K001106302
    Lucas, E.J. [553], Brazil K001106303
    Lucas, E.J. [470], Brazil K001106304
    Lucas, E.J. [470], Brazil K001106305
    Lucas, E.J. [707], Brazil K001106312
    Lucas, E.J. [497], Brazil K001106313
    Lucas, E.J. [543], Brazil K001106314
    Glaziou, A. [20150], Brazil K001106320
    Glaziou, A. [20151], Brazil K001106337
    Valls, J. [2579], Brazil K001106343
    Valls, J. [2609], Brazil K001106324
    Valls, J. [2611], Brazil K001106326
    Valls, J. [2677], Brazil K001106330
    Valls, J. [2614], Brazil K001106335
    Valls, J. [2615], Brazil K001106336
    Valls, J. [2669], Brazil K001106341
    Porto, M.L. [s.n.], Brazil K001106344
    Girardi, A.M. [ICN21286], Brazil K001106331
    Lloyton, W.P. [4981], Brazil K001106338

    First published in Syn. Pl. Aequin. 1: 254 (1822)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0