1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Cynosurus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to Central Asia and W. Himalaya.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (7), or perennial (2). Rhizomes absent (8), or elongated (1). Culms erect (4/5), or geniculately ascending (4/5); 5-41.11-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (8), or coriaceous (1); stiff (2), or firm (6), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous, or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (4), or spiciform (3), or capitate (2). Spikelets in pairs, or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster, or 2 in the cluster (1).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes mucronate (1/1). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4-5 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (6), or cuneate (4); laterally compressed; 2.3-5.273-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes mucronate (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4-5 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (6), or cuneate (4); laterally compressed; 2.3-5.273-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (6), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (2). Lower glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.8-0.9625-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled (8/8); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.75-1.246-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (8), or hyaline margins (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (7), or 2 -veined (2). Upper glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or oblong (4), or ovate (4); chartaceous (5), or coriaceous (4); without keel; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (2), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (3); glabrous (7), or pubescent (1), or hispid (1). Lemma apex entire (5), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); emarginate (2/6), or obtuse (4/6), or acute (2/6); muticous (1), or awned (8); 1 -awned (8/8). Principal lemma awn apical (4/8), or from a sinus (5/8). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (6), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (2). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (3/3); membranous (1/1); acute (1/1). Anthers 3 (8/8).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (8/8); oblong (5/5), or ovoid (1/5); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1-0.22-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/5), or elliptic (1/5), or linear (1/5); 0.2-0.35-0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (2), or South America (2), or Antarctica (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Delaware, Falkland Is., Georgia, Germany, Idaho, Irkutsk, Juan Fernández Is., Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., South Australia, South Carolina, Tasmania, Tennessee, Uruguay, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

    Cynosurus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 72 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0