1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Dactyloctenium Willd.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of digitate racemes; racemes secund, disarticulating at maturity from the top of the culm, the spikelets biseriate, imbricate, subsessile, the uppermost abortive and the raceme terminating in a naked pointed extension of the rhachis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets; glumes 1-nerved, keeled, membranous, subequal, shorter than the lemmas, persistent, the inferior sharply acute, the superior with a stout spreading awn usually arising from just below the broadly rounded emarginate apex; lemmas 3-nerved, the lateral nerves shorter than the body and obscure, keeled, membranous, glabrous, the apex entire, acute to shortly awned; palea keels sometimes winged.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis angular, ornamental, with a free hyaline pericarp which ruptures to release the seed.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted or stoloniferous annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or loosely folded; ligule membranous, truncate, often ciliolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence digitate, composed of several linear to narrowly oblong secund spikes which disarticulate at maturity from the top of the culm (very tardily in some species); uppermost spikelets abortive, the spike terminating in a pointed extension of the flattened rhachis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, elliptic to ovate, laterally compressed, biseriate, closely overlapping, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets; glumes 1-nerved, keeled, subequal, shorter than the lemmas, persistent, the lower sharply acute, the upper with a stout spreading awn usually arising just below the broadly rounded emarginate tip; lemmas 3-nerved, with the lateral nerves shorter than the lemmas and obscure, keeled, membranous, glabrous, the tip entire, acute to shortly awned; palea subequalling the lemma, keels sometimes winged
    Fruits
    Grain angular, ornamented, enclosed within a free hyaline pericarp which ruptures to release the grain.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (8), or perennial (5). Stolons absent (7), or present (7). Culms erect (3/11), or geniculately ascending (6/11), or decumbent (8/11), or prostrate (1/11); 3-34.76-160 cm long; without nodal roots (1/8), or rooting from lower nodes (8/8). Lateral branches ample (1/2), or suffrutescent (1/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (10), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades herbaceous (11), or coriaceous (2); stiff (2), or firm (11). Leaf-blade apex muticous (11), or pungent (2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (1), or paired (2), or digitate (12); not compacted (5/12), or in a head (7/12); erect (1), or ascending (12), or spreading (3); linear (7), or oblong (8); unilateral. Rhachis deciduous from axis; flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate (3), or bristle-like (10). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate (12/12); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (4), or 3-4 fertile florets (11), or 5 fertile florets (8), or 6 fertile florets (4), or 7 fertile florets (2), or 8-9 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (11); laterally compressed; 2.3-4.447-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Spikelet callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (4), or 3-4 fertile florets (11), or 5 fertile florets (8), or 6 fertile florets (4), or 7 fertile florets (2), or 8-9 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (11); laterally compressed; 2.3-4.447-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Spikelet callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (12), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (1); parallel to lemmas (11), or recurved at apex (2). Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (6); 0.7-0.9962-1.3 length of upper glume; membranous (5/5); 1-keeled; wingless (10), or winged on keel (4); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (12), or distinct (1). Lower glume apex truncate (1), or acute (12); muticous (12), or mucronate (1). Upper glume elliptic (3), or oblong (7), or ovate (3), or obovate (1); 0.4-0.6423-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex truncate (6), or obtuse (2), or acute (5); mucronate (1), or awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn terminal (5), or subapical (8).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate (3/3); not gibbous (9), or gibbous (4); lanceolate in profile (6/10), or elliptic in profile (1/10), or ovate in profile (5/10); membranous; keeled; 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (12). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (3), or scaberulous (8), or scabrous (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (8/8). Lemma apex acute (9), or acuminate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1), or cuspidate (3); muticous (5), or mucronate (9), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (12/12). Palea keels wingless (10), or winged (5); smooth (9), or scaberulous (4); eciliate (11), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp (12/12); ellipsoid (2/9), or oblong (1/9), or orbicular (1/9), or obovoid (7/9); laterally compressed (1/1); granular (5/9), or rugose (4/9).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (12), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Italy, Jamaica, Korea, Kriti, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Dactyloctenium Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Enum. Pl.: 1029 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Enum. Hort. Berol. 1029 (1809).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Enum. Pl.: 1029 (1809).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Enum. Hort. Berol.: 1029 (1809)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0