1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Dinebra Jacq.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, E. Australia to S. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of few to numerous secund racemes irregularly scattered along a central axis; racemes varying from short, broad and crowded to linear and distant, deciduous from the main axis at maturity or persistent but with deciduous branchlets, the spikelets sessile, biseriate, closely overlapping.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets cuneate, laterally compressed, 1–several-flowered, eventually disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes 1–3-nerved, membranous or coriaceous, subequal, acuminate-aristate, much longer than the florets, strongly keeled; lemmas 3-nerved, thinly membranous, lightly keeled, glabrous or pilose on the nerves, the apex acute to 2-lobed.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, shallowly concave on the hilar side, trigonous in section.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat; ligule membranous, truncate, lacerate or ciliate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of several-many secund spikes irregularly arranged along a central axis; spikes varying from short, broad and crowded to linear and distant, deciduous from the main rhachis at maturity or persistent but with the lower spikelets on each spike often replaced by small deciduous branchlets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-several-flowered, wedge-shaped, laterally compressed, sessile, biseriate, closely overlapping, disarticulating between the florets; glumes subequal, acuminate-aristate, much longer than the florets, strongly keeled, coriaceous or membranous; lemmas 3-nerved, lightly keeled, thinly membranous, pilose on the nerves, the tip acute to 2-lobed
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, shallowly concave on the hilar side, trigonous in cross-section.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect (1/1), or geniculately ascending (1/1); 15-65.83-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; spreading, or deflexed (2); linear, or oblong (1), or cuneate (1); unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets (1), or many spikelets; bearing 2-20 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis persistent (2), or deciduous from axis (1); wingless (2), or narrowly winged (1); flattened (1/2), or angular (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets, or 3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 3.2-5.233-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets, or 3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 3.2-5.233-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (2), or recurved at apex (1). Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); 0.9-0.9667-1 length of upper glume; membranous (1), or coriaceous (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined, or 2-3 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (2), or distinct (1). Lower glume apex acute (1), or attenuate (1), or caudate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); 1.5-2.583-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1), or coriaceous (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (1). Upper glume apex acute (1), or attenuate (1), or caudate (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/2), or obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2); muticous (1), or mucronate (2). Palea 0.8-0.85-0.9 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/2); isodiametric (2/2); trigonous (2/2).
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (1). Stolons absent (1), or present (1). Culms decumbent (1), or prostrate (1); 5-24.5-63 cm long; without nodal roots (1), or rooting from lower nodes. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted, or in a head (1); ascending (1), or spreading (1), or deflexed; oblong, or ovate; unilateral. Rhachis deciduous from axis; flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 2 -rowed. Spikelets spreading; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 5-7 fertile florets (1), or 8-9 fertile florets, or 10-18 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 6-9.25-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 5-7 fertile florets (1), or 8-9 fertile florets, or 10-18 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 6-9.25-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet, or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (1); recurved at apex. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.5 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined, or 4-5 -veined (1). Lower glume apex acute; mucronate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-1.25-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1-keeled; 7-9 -veined (1), or 11-17 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic in profile (1), or ovate in profile (1); chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined (1), or 5-7 -veined (1). Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute; muticous (1), or mucronate. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (1); smooth (1), or scabrous (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with tardily free pericarp; ellipsoid; isodiametric; trigonous. Embryo 0.4-0.45-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Shortly stoloniferous annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat; ligule membranous, truncate, minutely lacerate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence often compact, composed of several short broad secund spikes alternating along a central axis; spikes deciduous at maturity
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-many-flowered, strongly laterally compressed, subsessile, biseriate, closely overlapping, disarticulating between the florets but usually the whole spike falling before many florets have been shed; glumes unequal except in the terminal spikelet, keeled, persistent; lower glume of the lateral spikelets 1–5-nerved, asymmetrical; upper glumes and the lower glume of the terminal spikelet conspicuous, many-nerved, a third as long to longer than the spikelet, the acuminate tip often widely spreading; lemmas 3–7-nerved, keeled, chartaceous with a thinner patch on either side of the base of the keel, villous on the lower part of the keel and margins, the lateral nerves shorter than the lemma, obscure at the base, the tip cuspidate or mucronate
    Fruits
    Grain elliptic-oblong, brown, shiny, enclosed in a pale-coloured adherent pericarp (removable when soaked), trigonous in cross section.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    China South-Central, China Southeast, Czechoslovakia, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maryland, Mauritius, North Carolina, South Carolina, St.Helena, Thailand

    Dinebra Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fragm. Bot.: 77 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fragm. 77 (1809).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • S.M. Phillips in Kew Bull. 28: 411 (1973).
    • Fragm. Bot.: 77, t. 121/1 (1809).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Phillips in K.B. 28: 409 (1973)
    • Fragm.: 77, t. 121/1 (1809)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0