1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Dinochloa Buse

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Hainan, Taiwan, E. Himalaya to W. & Central Malesia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (1/21), or prostrate (1/21), or scandent (20/21); 40-1648-3899 cm long; woody; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes swollen (7/7). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement several (21/31), or many (10/31); with subequal branches (1/25), or 1 branch dominant (24/25); as thick as stem (25/25). Culm-sheaths persistent (1/15), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (7/15), or deciduous (7/15); without auricles (8/23), or auriculate (15/23). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (9/30), or narrowly ovate (11/30), or ovate (7/30), or triangular (3/30); constricted at base (5/16), or narrower than sheath (1/16), or as wide as sheath at base (2/16), or cordate (8/16). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (17), or erect (10), or falcate (10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (31), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate (32), or oblong (4). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (30), or with obscure cross veins (2), or with distinct cross veins (5).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (31/31); clustered at the nodes (31/31); in globose clusters (14/31), or stellate clusters (1/31), or oblong clusters (3/31), or compact unilateral clumps (7/31), or untidy tufts (6/31); with glumaceous subtending bracts (31/31); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (31/31); leafy between clusters (1/31), or leafless between clusters (5/31), or leafless between branches (25/31). Fertile spikelets sessile (31/31).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (31/31); without rhachilla extension (30/31), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1/31). Spikelets lanceolate (2/31), or elliptic (10/31), or oblong (18/31), or ovate (1/31); laterally compressed (31/31); 1.66-3.438-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity (31/31); disarticulating below each fertile floret (31/31).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (31/31); without rhachilla extension (30/31), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1/31). Spikelets lanceolate (2/31), or elliptic (10/31), or oblong (18/31), or ovate (1/31); laterally compressed (31/31); 1.66-3.438-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity (31/31); disarticulating below each fertile floret (31/31).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (2/31), or two (24/31), or several (5/31); persistent (31/31); shorter than spikelet (31/31). Lower glume oblong (1/28), or ovate (12/28), or orbicular (5/28), or oblate (10/28); 0.5-1.5-2 length of upper glume; chartaceous (6/6); without keels (6/6); 3 -veined (4/9), or 5 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 9 -veined (1/9). Lower glume surface glabrous (28/29), or puberulous (1/29). Lower glume apex emarginate (2/27), or truncate (10/27), or obtuse (5/27), or acute (8/27), or acuminate (1/27), or cuspidate (1/27); muticous (22/28), or mucronate (6/28). Upper glume oblong (1/30), or ovate (15/30), or orbicular (1/30), or oblate (13/30); 0.4-1.675-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (7/7); without keels (7/7); 1-4 -veined (1/9), or 5 -veined (3/9), or 6 -veined (1/9), or 7 -veined (4/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10-11 -veined (1/9), or 13 -veined (1/9). Upper glume surface glabrous (30/31), or puberulous (1/31). Upper glume apex emarginate (2/30), or truncate (9/30), or obtuse (3/30), or acute (9/30), or acuminate (1/30), or cuspidate (6/30); muticous (22/30), or mucronate (8/30).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong (13/31), or ovate (7/31), or orbicular (9/31), or oblate (2/31); chartaceous (1/31), or coriaceous (30/31); without keel (31/31); 1-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (5/16), or 6 -veined (2/16), or 7 -veined (10/16), or 9 -veined (2/16), or 15-19 -veined (1/16). Lemma surface glabrous (30/31), or pubescent (1/31). Lemma margins flat (30/31), or convolute (1/31); exposing palea (30/31), or covering most of palea (1/31). Lemma apex emarginate (1/31), or truncate (7/31), or obtuse (7/31), or acute (11/31), or acuminate (1/31), or cuspidate (4/31); muticous (29/31), or mucronate (2/31). Palea present (31/31), or absent or minute (1/31); not rolled (1/31), or involute (29/31), or tightly convolute around flower (1/31); 1-1.066-1.2 length of lemma; hyaline (1/31), or chartaceous (1/31), or coriaceous (29/31); 4 -veined (2/12), or 5 -veined (1/12), or 6 -veined (6/12), or 7 -veined (1/12), or 8 -veined (5/12), or 9 -veined (1/12); without keels (29/31), or 2-keeled (2/31). Palea surface glabrous (31/31), or puberulous (1/31).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (20/24), or 3 (4/24); membranous (1/1); glabrous (1/4), or ciliate (3/4). Anthers 6 (31/31). Stigmas 2 (2/28), or 3 (27/28). Ovary unappendaged (12/31), or umbonate (18/31), or with a steeple-like appendage (1/31); glabrous (16/16).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (1/28), or fleshy pericarp (27/28); oblong (5/20), or ovoid (1/20), or orbicular (13/20), or obovoid (1/20); isodiametric (16/16); smooth (9/12), or rugose (4/12).
    Distribution
    Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (34).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Hainan, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

    Dinochloa Buse appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Coode, M.J.E. [MC5278], Philippines K000795406
    Dransfield, S. [SD1298], Philippines K000795442
    Dransfield, S. [SD1295], Philippines K000795441
    Dransfield, S. [SD1314], Philippines K000795438
    Dransfield, S. [SD1328], Philippines K000795476
    Saw, L.G. [FRi 36488], Malaysia K000795435
    Meyer, W. [s.n.], Malaysia 8005.000
    Meyer, W. [s.n.], Malaysia 8006.000
    Meyer, W. [s.n.], Sabah K000795437
    Kulip, J. et al. [SAN124793], Sabah K000795474
    D. Nicholson [21512], Malaysia 8007.000
    Fernandes, E.S. [EF850], Philippines K000795436

    First published in F.A.W.Miquel, Pl. Jungh., prepr.: 47 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0