1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Echinochloa P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat; ligule absent or represented by a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes arranged on a central axis; rhachis triquetrous, scabrid, often setose, the spikelets paired (very rarely single) or on short side branchlets and forming (2–)4 or more rows
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, convex on the back, flat on the front, ± hispid, cuspidate or awned, rarely obtuse and then the spikelet borne upon a short stipe; lower glume ovate, ± 1/3 the length of the spikelet, typically acute to acuminate; upper glume as long as the spikelet, acute to acuminate, rarely with a short awn-point or obtuse; lower floret ♂ or barren, with or without a palea, its lemma resembling the upper glume but often awned; upper lemma crustaceous, smooth and shining, its margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea, terminating in a very short incurved laterally compressed ± herbaceous beak; upper palea acute (rarely obtuse) with the tip briefly reflexed and ± protruberant between the lemma margins
    Fruits
    Caryopsis broadly elliptic, dorsally flattened.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of racemes along a central axis, the spikelets paired or in short secondary racemelets, typically densely packed in 4 rows.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic to subrotund, flat on one side gibbous on the other, often hispidulous, the apex usually cuspidate or awned.
    Glume
    Glumes acute to acuminate, the inferior usually c. 1/3, the superior as long as spikelet.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma often stiffly awned. Superior lemma crustaceous, terminating in a short, membranous, laterally compressed, incurved beak; superior palea acute, the apex briefly reflexed and slightly protruberant from lemma.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (23/33), or perennial (11/33). Rhizomes absent (29), or elongated (5). Culms erect (18/30), or geniculately ascending (15/30), or decumbent (8/30), or prostrate (1/30), or rambling (1/30); reed-like (1/7), or robust (5/7), or of moderate stature (1/7), or slender (1/7); 10-110.3-400 cm long; spongy (3), or compressible (3), or firm (28), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (4/8), or rooting from lower nodes (8/8). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or channelled (1/3). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (5/7), or sparse (5/7), or ample (1/7). Ligule a fringe of hairs (20), or absent (15). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (33). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (8/8).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (33), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted (33), or in a multilateral false spike (1); appressed (6), or erect (8), or ascending (26), or spreading (2); unilateral; bearing 10-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis wingless (32), or narrowly winged (2); angular (24), or subterete (10). Spikelet packing adaxial (1/1); crowded (14), or contiguous (18), or lax (2); 2 -rowed (7), or 3 -rowed (6), or 4 -rowed (32), or 5 -rowed (4), or 6 -rowed (3). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (3), or in pairs (31), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (5). Fertile spikelets sessile (17), or sessile and pedicelled (4), or pedicelled (13); 2-4 in the cluster (5/5); subequal (18/18). Pedicels oblong (3/3); tip discoid (8/8).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or ovate (16), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (20), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (2); 1.5-4.163-7.5 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (32). Spikelet callus brief (30), or oblong (3), or globular (1); free from lower glume (30), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (4). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated between glumes (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or ovate (16), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (20), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (2); 1.5-4.163-7.5 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (32). Spikelet callus brief (30), or oblong (3), or globular (1); free from lower glume (30), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (4). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated between glumes (2).
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (33), or oblate (1); clasping (20/20); membranous (16/16), or chartaceous (2/16); without keels; 3 -veined (23/32), or 4 -veined (19/32), or 5 -veined (27/32), or 6 -veined (2/32), or 7 -veined (3/32). Lower glume surface smooth (16), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (15), or spinose (3); glabrous (22), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (3), or hispidulous (7), or hispid (5). Lower glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (14), or acuminate (7), or cuspidate (17); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Upper glume elliptic (9), or ovate (26); not gibbous (33), or gibbous (1); membranous (32), or chartaceous (2); without keels; 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (30), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (9), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (3). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (7), or spinose (5); glabrous (11), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (4), or hispidulous (16), or hispid (6); with simple hairs (24/26), or tubercle-based hairs (4/26). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/33), or acute (3/33), or acuminate (11/33), or cuspidate (19/33), or caudate (2/33); muticous (30), or mucronate (4), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (19), or barren (20); with palea (29), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (8), or ovate (26); membranous (32), or chartaceous (3); 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (28), or 6 -veined (8), or 7 -veined (13), or 9 -veined (1); without grooves (33), or sulcate (1); obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (18), or attenuate (1), or cuspidate (10); muticous (20), or mucronate (1), or awned (24). Fertile lemma elliptic (9), or oblong (1), or ovate (24), or orbicular (1); not gibbous (7), or gibbous (27); coriaceous (1), or indurate (33); of similar consistency above (4), or much thinner above (30); without keel; 5 -veined (23/23). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4). Lemma surface smooth (32), or striate (3). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (2), or acute (15), or acuminate (2), or cuspidate (8), or apiculate (4), or rostrate (3); without ornament (7), or laterally pinched (25), or scabrous (2); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Palea reflexed at apex; 1 length of lemma; coriaceous (1), or indurate (33).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (14/14); ellipsoid (5/8), or oblong (5/8), or ovoid (1/8), or orbicular (1/8). Embryo 0.5-0.6825-0.8 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (4), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (18), or Pacific (5), or North America (11), or South America (11).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Argentina South, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Belgium, Bermuda, British Columbia, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Galápagos, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, Juan Fernández Is., Kermadec Is., Magadan, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Nauru, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niue, Norfolk Is., North European Russi, Poland, Prince Edward I., Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Sweden, Switzerland, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

    Echinochloa P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5062], Brazil K001102335
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5061], Brazil K001102336
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6077], Brazil K001102337

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 53 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 604 (1920).
    • Ess. Agrost. 53 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ess. Agrost.: 53 (1812) nom conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 53 (1812), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0