1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Echinolaena Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is SE. Mexico to S. Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (8). Rhizomes absent (4), or elongated (5). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (2), or decumbent (2), or prostrate (2), or rambling (6); 20-62.5-120 cm long; without nodal roots (1/6), or rooting from lower nodes (6/6). Lateral branches ample (2/2). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (8). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (7), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (2), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear (2), or lanceolate (8), or ovate (2); herbaceous (8), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (8). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (4), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (2/2). Leaf-blade apex muticous (8), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (7), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (2/2). Racemes single (4), or borne along a central axis (6); ascending (2), or spreading (5), or deflexed (2); unilateral. Rhachis flattened (4), or angular (1), or subterete (3), or semiterete (1); terminating in a spikelet (7), or barren extension (2); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing 4 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets ascending (3), or pectinate (7); solitary (4), or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (5), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (3); 1 in the cluster (5), or 2 in the cluster; subequal (4/4), or the lower smaller (4/4). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (1/1); 0-1 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels oblong (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (8), or rudimentary (1). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (6), or dorsally compressed (3); 4-6.063-10.5 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus winged; with apical wings adnate to lemma (7), or apical wings shrivelled to concave scars (3).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (8), or rudimentary (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (6), or dorsally compressed (3); 4-6.063-10.5 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus winged; with apical wings adnate to lemma (7), or apical wings shrivelled to concave scars (3).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or ovate (3); clasping (2/2); 1.25 length of upper glume; membranous (3), or herbaceous (4), or coriaceous (2); without keels (6), or 1-keeled (3); 3 -veined (4), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (4), or 7 -veined (2), or 9 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (7), or ribbed (2). Lower glume surface glabrous (3), or pilose (4), or hispid (1), or setose (1). Lower glume apex entire (8), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (1/8), or acuminate (3/8), or attenuate (2/8), or cuspidate (1/8), or caudate (2/8); muticous (6), or mucronate (1), or awned (4). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); membranous (8), or herbaceous (1); without keels (6), or 1-keeled (3); 5 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (3), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (2). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (7), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (8), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or pubescent (2), or pilose (3), or setose (1); with simple hairs (2/6), or tubercle-based hairs (4/6). Upper glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (6), or rostrate (1); muticous (6), or mucronate (2), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (8), or barren (2); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); membranous (8), or herbaceous (1); 5 -veined (6/8), or 7 -veined (1/8), or 9 -veined (1/8); obtuse (1/8), or acute (7/8); muticous (8), or mucronate (1). Fertile lemma elliptic (6), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed (8/8); indurate; without keel; 5 -veined (6/6). Lemma surface smooth (8), or granulose (1). Lemma margins involute; exposing palea (6), or covering most of palea (3). Lemma apex obtuse (6/6); muticous (8), or mucronate (1). Palea not rolled (6), or involute (3); indurate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (4/4).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2). Embryo 0.66 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or North America (2), or South America (6).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Southeast, Nicaragua, Suriname, Venezuela

    Echinolaena Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8661] K001131227
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8661] K001131226

    First published in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 75 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0