1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Ehrharta Thunb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa and S. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or rolled, often auricled, sometimes much reduced
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually contracted, sometimes a raceme, rarely a solitary spikelet
    Spikelets
    Spikelets with mostly subequal glumes, shorter than or as long as the spikelet; sterile lemmas glabrous or hairy, 1 or both often transversely ridged or wrinkled, awned or awnless, the upper sometimes with basal appendages or tufts of hair, its hook-shaped base forming a hinge between first and third lemmas; palea 2-nerved, the nerves close together.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets strongly laterally compressed, solitary, pedicelled, 3-flowered; the first and second florets sterile, reduced to empty lemmas, the uppermost hermaphrodite.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, equal or unequal, usually shorter than, rarely as long as, seldom longer than the rest of the spikelet, 1-11-nerved, persistent, membranous, obtusely keeled.
    Lemma
    Lemmas heteromorphous; the sterile ones (1 and 2) equal or unequal, almost always exceeding the glumes, compressed, usually cartilaginous, awned or muticous, 3-5-nerved, transversely rugose, tuberculate or smooth, the second one often with variously shaped callous appendages at the base; the fertile one (the uppermost) shorter than the sterile ones, often hinged with the second sterile one by basal callous knob-like appendages, usually 5-nerved, indurate but less so than the sterile ones, muticous, sometimes transversely rugose or tuberculate but more often smooth.
    Palea
    Paleas slightly shorter or as long as the lemma, 2-nerved, with the nerves very close together, 2-keeled, membranous.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, often lobed.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6 or 3, very rarely 1.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous, ovoid; styles distinct; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted above the base.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic in outline, strongly laterally compressed, embryo c. 1/5 the length of the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials of varying habit.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaves with the laminas often greatly reduced.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous or scarious but sometimes reduced to a rim of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, rarely a raceme, usually rather dense, compact or interrupted, sometimes spike-like, more rarely loose and open, sometimes secund.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (31). Rhizomes absent (18), or short (9), or elongated (13). Stolons absent (34), or present (4). Culms erect (10/21), or geniculately ascending (4/21), or decumbent (10/21), or prostrate (2/21), or rambling (4/21); robust (1/4), or of moderate stature (1/4), or slender (2/4); 2-55.39-250 cm long; firm (28), or wiry (6), or woody (5); without nodal roots (1/4), or rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Lateral branches lacking (2/11), or sparse (1/11), or ample (4/11), or suffrutescent (5/11). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (35), or with blades commonly suppressed, transferring photosynthetic function to sheath and culm (1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (30), or erect (2), or falcate (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (22), or a ciliolate membrane (14). Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (3); aciculate (1), or filiform (3), or linear (31), or lanceolate (2); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (33), or flaccid (2). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/2), or cartilaginous (1/2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (29), or composed of racemes (11), or comprising only a few spikelets (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath, or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Panicle open (27/29), or contracted (11/29), or spiciform (1/29), or capitate (1/29). Primary panicle branches not whorled (28/29), or whorled at lower nodes (1/29). Racemes single (11/11); unilateral (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (5/11), or many spikelets (6/11); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 3-5 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 6 fertile spikelets on each (4/4), or 7-10 fertile spikelets on each (3/4). Rhachis angular (4/4). Spikelet packing contiguous (11/11), or lax (1/11); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (3/6), or spreading (5/6), or deflexed (2/6); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (4), or pedicelled (32). Pedicels filiform (13/14), or oblong (1/14).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (34), or with a barren rhachilla extension (3). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (29), or ovate (1), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 2-7.851-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1), or elongated between basal sterile florets (3). Floret callus brief (35), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (3/19), or pubescent (13/19), or pilose (3/19), or bearded (2/19).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (34), or with a barren rhachilla extension (3). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (29), or ovate (1), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 2-7.851-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1), or elongated between basal sterile florets (3). Floret callus brief (35), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (3/19), or pubescent (13/19), or pilose (3/19), or bearded (2/19).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (1), or two (35); persistent (35/35); shorter than spikelet (32/35), or reaching apex of florets (6/35), or exceeding apex of florets (5/35); thinner than fertile lemma (35/35); parallel to lemmas (34/35), or gaping (3/35). Lower glume lanceolate (2/35), or elliptic (7/35), or oblong (7/35), or ovate (18/35), or oblate (1/35); 0.25-0.7821-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (12/35), or membranous (15/35), or chartaceous (9/35), or herbaceous (1/35); without keels (25/35), or 1-keeled (10/35); 1 -veined (7/33), or 3 -veined (17/33), or 4 -veined (4/33), or 5 -veined (12/33), or 6-7 -veined (2/33), or 8-9 -veined (1/33). Lower glume lateral veins absent (5/35), or distinct (30/35). Lower glume surface glabrous (35/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lower glume apex entire (33/35), or erose (2/35); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (10/34), or acute (14/34), or acuminate (10/34); muticous (34/35), or mucronate (1/35). Upper glume lanceolate (3/35), or elliptic (6/35), or oblong (8/35), or ovate (18/35); 0.2-0.7174-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (12/35), or membranous (15/35), or chartaceous (9/35), or herbaceous (1/35); without keels (32/35), or 1-keeled (3/35); 1-5-9 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (31/32), or ribbed (1/32). Upper glume surface glabrous (35/35), or pubescent (1/35). Upper glume apex emarginate (2/34), or truncate (2/34), or obtuse (7/34), or acute (14/34), or acuminate (10/34); muticous (34/35), or mucronate (1/35).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6), or elliptic (20), or oblong (8), or ovate (3); 0.33-0.9162-2 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (1), or cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (15); 3-4 -veined (4/31), or 5 -veined (28/31), or 6 -veined (8/31), or 7 -veined (11/31), or 8-9 -veined (2/31), or 10-11 -veined (1/31); without ribs (29), or ribbed (8); emarginate (1), or truncate (2), or obtuse (13), or acute (9), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (5); muticous (19), or mucronate (6), or awned (16). Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (25), or oblong (4), or ovate (5); hyaline (1), or membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (21), or coriaceous (12); of similar consistency on margins (35), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; 3-4 -veined (2/28), or 5 -veined (20/28), or 6 -veined (6/28), or 7 -veined (13/28), or 8 -veined (1/28), or 9 -veined (2/28). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (33), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lemma surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (2); glabrous (32), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (35), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex entire (34), or erose (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (9/35), or obtuse (14/35), or acute (12/35), or acuminate (1/35); without ornament (33), or cucullate (1), or pubescent (2); muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 0.66-0.8157-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (35); 1 -veined (6/28), or 2 -veined (21/28), or 3 -veined (1/28); 1-keeled (6), or 2-keeled (30). Palea keels separated (9/30), or approximate (21/30); smooth (35), or scaberulous (1); eciliate (35), or ciliate (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous; glabrous (34), or ciliate (2); 2-toothed (3/3); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 2 (6/23), or 3 (1/23), or 4 (9/23), or 6 (8/23).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); linear (1/3), or lanceolate (1/3), or ovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis.
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (35), or present (1).
    Distribution
    Africa (24), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (4), or North America (1), or South America (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Antipodean Is., Botswana, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Society Is., Somalia, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Assam, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, China South-Central, Egypt, France, Hawaii, India, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, New South Wales, Palestine, Portugal, Queensland, Sardegna, South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Texas, Tunisia, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia

    Ehrharta Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 40: 216 (1779)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. 40: 217, pl. 8 (1779).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockholm 40: 217 (1779), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0