1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Elymandra Stapf

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is SE. Brazil, Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule scarious; leaf laminas linear.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired (rarely solitary) racemes long-exserted from narrow spatheoles and gathered into a false panicle; racemes slender, with up to 10 homogamous spikelet-pairs (only 1 in the Flora Zambesiaca area); raceme-bases filiform, unequal, rarely deflexed; internodes and pedicels linear.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet ± terete; callus narrowly obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the apex of the internode with its tip free; inferior glume coriaceous, rounded on the back and sides, becoming dark brown; superior glume nearly always awned; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the lobes into an awn with ± hirsute column. Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, narrowly lanceolate, olive-green tinged with brown, the callus well developed.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (3). Culms erect; slender (1/1); 30-162.8-260 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole, or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades stiff (3), or firm (3). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; scanty (4), or paniculate (2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Spatheole linear; scarious. Racemes single (1), or paired (5); bearing few fertile spikelets (5), or many spikelets (1); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (3), or 2-3 fertile spikelets on each (2), or 4-5 fertile spikelets on each (1), or 6-8 fertile spikelets on each (2), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Spikelet packing crowded (2), or contiguous (2), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Raceme-bases brief (1), or filiform (5); unequal (the longer measured) (5/5). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (5), or separately deciduous (1). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus oblong (4), or cuneate (1), or linear (1). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (1/1), or mucronate (1/1). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 5.81-9.684-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; pubescent (2), or bearded (4); base obtuse (1), or pungent (5); attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (5), or separately deciduous (1). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus oblong (4), or cuneate (1), or linear (1). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (1/1), or mucronate (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 5.81-9.684-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; pubescent (2), or bearded (4); base obtuse (1), or pungent (5); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; chartaceous; without keels; 7 -veined (2/2). Lower glume surface pubescent (2), or pilose (2), or villous (2). Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (2/2). Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (1); muticous (1), or awned; 1 -awned.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel. Lemma margins eciliate (5), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex dentate (2), or lobed (4); 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.3583-0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate. Column of lemma awn hispidulous (2), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hirtellous (1). Palea absent or minute.
    Distribution
    Africa, or South America (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired (rarely solitary) racemes long-exserted from narrow spatheoles and gathered into a false panicle; racemes slender, with up to 10 homogamous pairs; raceme-bases filiform, unequal, rarely deflexed; internodes and pedicels linear
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet ± terete; callus narrowly obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode with its tip free; lower glume coriaceous, rounded on the back and sides, at length dark brown; upper glume nearly always awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into an awn with ± hairy column
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, olive green tinted with brown, the callus well developed. Sessile spikelet ± terete; callus narrowly obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode with its tip free; lower glume coriaceous, rounded on the back and sides, at length dark brown; upper glume nearly always awned; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into an awn with ± hairy column
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, olive green tinted with brown, the callus well developed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Elymandra Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 407 (1919)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 20: 287 (1966).
    • Jacques-Félix in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 30: 169 (1950)
    • in F.T.A. 9: 407 (1919)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 20: 287 (1966).
    • in Prain, F.T.A. 9: 407 (1919).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B. 20: 287 (1966)
    • in F.T.A. 9: 407 (1919)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0