1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Enteropogon Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials with wiry culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat and linear or involute and filiform; ligule a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary (rarely paired) terminal 1-sided spike, the spikelets appressed to the rhachis in 2 rows
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–3-flowered, lanceolate-elliptic, dorsally compressed, exceeding the glumes, glabrous (except for the callus of the florets); glumes lanceolate, membranous, 1-nerved, minutely bidentate, terminating in a short awn-point, the lower glume 3–3.5 mm. long, the upper 5.5–7.5 mm. long
    Florets
    Lower floret hermaphrodite; lemma narrowly elliptic, dorsally compressed, indurate, scaberulous, prominently awned from the sinus of the minutely bidentate tip; middle floret (when present) ♂ or sometimes hermaphrodite, similar to the lower but smaller; upper floret ♂
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly oblong, dorsally flattened.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence a solitary (rarely paired) terminal, 1-sided raceme.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–3-flowered, sessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, membranous, shorter than the spikelet, 1-nerved, the superior longer than the inferior, minutely 2-toothed at the apex, terminating in a short awn; lowermost floret fertile; fertile lemma elliptic, dorsally compressed, indurate, prominently awned from the sinus of the minutely 2-toothed apex; middle floret (when present) male or sometimes fertile, similar to the fertile one but smaller; uppermost floret male or sterile.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly oblong, dorsally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (16). Culms erect (5/7), or geniculately ascending (4/7); 20-63.75-100 cm long; firm (13), or wiry (5); without nodal roots (2/2), or rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (3/7), or sparse (1/7), or ample (3/7), or fastigiate (1/7). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (10), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (5). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (14).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (8), or paired (3), or digitate (11), or borne along a central axis (1); erect (2), or ascending (15), or spreading (1), or radiating (1), or drooping (1); unilateral. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (13), or lax (5); 2 -rowed (10/10). Spikelets appressed (16), or ascending (2); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (8), or elliptic (9), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed (8), or dorsally compressed (10); 2.5-5.697-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (4), or evident (14); glabrous (2), or pubescent (5), or pilose (8), or bearded (3); obtuse (15), or acute (1), or pungent (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (8), or elliptic (9), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed (8), or dorsally compressed (10); 2.5-5.697-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (4), or evident (14); glabrous (2), or pubescent (5), or pilose (8), or bearded (3); obtuse (15), or acute (1), or pungent (2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (14), or reaching apex of florets (5), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (3), or lanceolate (14); 0.15-0.5011-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (3/17), or membranous (14/17); without keels (17/17); 1 -veined (17/17). Lower glume lateral veins absent (17), or distinct (1). Lower glume apex acuminate (15/17), or setaceously attenuate (2/17); muticous (16/17), or mucronate (1/17). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (14); 0.5-0.8267-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (3), or membranous (15); without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex entire (13), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); acuminate (8/10), or setaceously attenuate (2/10); muticous (11), or mucronate (2), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (6), or elliptic (12), or oblong (1); dorsally compressed; cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (15); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (17), or scaberulous (1). Lemma lateral veins excurrent (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (7), or granulose (1), or scaberulous (10), or scabrous (1); glabrous, or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Lemma margins eciliate (15), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (7), or dentate (11); 2 -fid (11/11); acute (3/6), or acuminate (3/6); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (7), or subapical (1), or from a sinus (10); straight (15), or flexuous (3). Palea 0.75 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels unthickened (16), or thickened (2); smooth (15), or scaberulous (2), or tuberculate (1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (14), or 2 in number (11), or 3-5 in number (1); barren (2/2); separate (16), or in a clump (2); linear (9), or lanceolate (9), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (2), or awned (16).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp (10/10); linear (1/12), or ellipsoid (11/12); flattened; concavo-convex. Embryo 0.4 length of caryopsis.
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (17), or present (2); underground (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Chad, China South-Central, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, North Carolina, Ogasawara-shoto

    Enteropogon Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J.Lindley, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 448 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bull 21: 105 (1967).
    • in Lindl., Introd. Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 448 (1836)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 21: 105–110 (1967).
    • in Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 448 (1836).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • W. D. Clayton in K.B. 21: 107 (1967)
    • in Lindl., Introd. Nat. Syst., ed. 2: 448 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0