1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Eriochloa Kunth

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, linear, tapering to a fine point; ligule represented by a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes arranged along a central axis, the racemes usually numerous and ascending or appressed to the axis; rhachis narrow, bearing the spikelets singly, in pairs or on short side branchlets (especially E. meyerana), the lower glume adaxial
    Spikelets
    Spikelets usually lanceolate to elliptic, dorsally compressed, acute to aristate, supported upon a bead-like swelling formed from the lowest rhachilla internode and adherent vestigial lower glume (rarely the latter developed); upper glume as long as the spikelet; lower floret ♂ or barren, the lemma resembling the upper glume but a little shorter; upper lemma crustaceous, papillose, obtuse and mucronate, its margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the obtuse palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong-elliptic, dorsally compressed, obtuse.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle condensed about the primary branches or of racemes along a central axis, the spikelets single and abaxial, paired or on short side branchlets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to narrowly ovate, thinly biconvex, acute to aristate, with a little globose bead at the base.
    Glume
    Inferior glume vestigial (except E. meyeriana, E. rovumensis),adnate to swollen basal internode of rhachilla. Superior glume as long as spikelet, often with an awn-point.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma coriaceous, granulose, usually mucronate.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (19), or perennial (15). Rhizomes absent (33), or short (1). Culms erect (20/26), or geniculately ascending (14/26), or decumbent (3/26), or rambling (2/26); robust (1/2), or weak (1/2); 10-68.23-200 cm long; without nodal roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/8), or sparse (4/8), or ample (2/8), or fastigiate (1/8). Ligule a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (33). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (30), or lanceolate (6); herbaceous (33), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (33). Leaf-blade apex muticous (33), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (1), or composed of racemes; exserted (33), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (1/1). Racemes single (1), or paired (1), or borne along a central axis; appressed (4), or erect (3), or ascending (29), or spreading (1); linear (33), or oblong (1); unilateral; bearing 5-8 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis wingless (30), or narrowly winged (5); angular. Spikelet packing adaxial (9/9); crowded (5), or contiguous (29); 2 -rowed (12/12). Raceme-bases brief (33), or filiform (1). Spikelets ascending (1/3), or pectinate (2/3); solitary (20), or in pairs (23), or clustered at each node (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2-4 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free, or fused to each other (1); oblong (30/31), or clavate (1/31); tip discoid (10/10).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (16), or elliptic (15), or oblong (2), or ovate (8); dorsally compressed; 2-4.359-11 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus globular; incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume; glabrous (32/32).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (16), or elliptic (15), or oblong (2), or ovate (8); dorsally compressed; 2-4.359-11 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus globular; incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume; glabrous (32/32).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (30), or two (4); reaching apex of florets (8), or exceeding apex of florets (27); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1/4), or ovate (1/4), or oblate (3/4); 0.05 length of upper glume; hyaline (2/3), or membranous (1/3); without keels (2/2); 0 -veined (2/3), or 3-5 -veined (1/3). Lower glume lateral veins absent (2/4), or distinct (2/4). Lower glume surface glabrous (3/4), or pilose (1/4). Lower glume apex truncate (3/4), or obtuse (1/4), or acuminate (1/4), or cuspidate (1/4). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (25), or ovate (9); membranous (32), or herbaceous (2); without keels; 3 -veined (1/27), or 5 -veined (26/27). Upper glume surface smooth (32), or scabrous (2); glabrous (3), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (20), or pilose (6), or hirsute (1), or villous (4). Upper glume apex entire (33), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/33), or acute (11/33), or acuminate (14/33), or attenuate (10/33), or setaceously attenuate (1/33); muticous (23), or mucronate (4), or awned (13); 1 -awned (13/13).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (4), or barren (32); with palea (5), or without significant palea (29). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (27), or ovate (7); 3.5-3.75-4 length of fertile lemma; membranous (8/8); 3 -veined (2/26), or 5 -veined (24/26); obtuse (1), or acute (12), or acuminate (17), or attenuate (6); muticous (31), or mucronate (3), or awned (1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (32), or oblong (5), or ovate (2); indurate; without keel; 3 -veined (1/3), or 5 -veined (2/3). Lemma surface smooth (21), or granulose (9), or papillose (2), or reticulate (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled (32), or rugulose (2). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (24), or acute (9), or apiculate (1); without ornament (27), or pubescent (7); muticous (7), or mucronate (23), or awned (7); 1 -awned (7/7). Palea involute; indurate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (8/8).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/4); ellipsoid (2/4), or oblong (3/4); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.33-0.415-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/2), or linear (1/2); 0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (2), or North America (8), or South America (18).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    East Himalaya

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Maryland, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central European Rus, Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., District of Columbia, East European Russia, Fiji, Hawaii, Iowa, Marianas, New York, Ogasawara-shoto, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Samoa, South Dakota, St.Helena, Tonga, Ukraine, West Siberia, Wisconsin

    Eriochloa Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 94 (1816)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 497 (1919).
    • in Humb. & Bonpl., Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 94 (1815)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Humb. & Bonpl., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 94 (1816).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B. 30: 107 (1975)
    • in Humb. & Bonpl., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 94 (1816)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0