1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Guadua Kunth

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America, Trinidad.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short (27), or elongated (1); pachymorph. Culms erect (18/26), or geniculately ascending (1/26), or arching (5/26), or leaning (2/26), or scandent (4/26); 300-1145-3000 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/20), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/20), or with root thorns from the nodes (19/20). Culm-internodes terete (22/27), or semiterete (5/27). Culm-nodes without obvious supra-nodal ridge (2/7), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (5/7). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (4/20), or two (8/20), or three (13/20), or several (10/20), or many (1/20); in a horizontal line (1/5), or in a clump (4/5); with 1 branch dominant (9/9); thinner than stem (11/11). Culm-sheaths persistent (2/12), or tardily deciduous (1/12), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/12), or deciduous (9/12); without auricles (13/16), or auriculate (6/16). Culm-sheath blade inconspicuous (1/18), or lanceolate (4/18), or ovate (2/18), or triangular (12/18); as wide as sheath at base (2/2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (21), or erect (2), or falcate (5). Ligule an eciliate membrane (21), or a ciliolate membrane (10). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades persistent (25), or deciduous at the ligule (3); linear (9), or lanceolate (26), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/5). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (20), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (8).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (1/26), or bractiferous (25/26); scanty (9/25), or paniculate (1/25), or globose (1/25), or clustered at the nodes (15/25); in untidy tufts (14/14); with glumaceous subtending bracts (24/25), or spathaceous subtending bracts (1/25); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (20/20); leafy between clusters (5/15), or leafless between clusters (8/15), or leafless between branches (2/15). Inflorescence a panicle (1/1). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or ascending (4/4), or spreading (1/4), or deflexed (1/4). Fertile spikelets sessile (26/26).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (5/5), or 2 basal sterile florets (4/5); 1-6-17 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/26), or with diminished florets at the apex (26/26). Spikelets linear (16/26), or lanceolate (10/26), or elliptic (1/26), or oblong (3/26); laterally compressed (19/26), or subterete (7/26); 3-38.49-170 mm long; breaking up at maturity (26/26); disarticulating below each fertile floret (26/26). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (18/25), or pubescent (7/25).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (5/5), or 2 basal sterile florets (4/5); 1-6-17 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/26), or with diminished florets at the apex (26/26). Spikelets linear (16/26), or lanceolate (10/26), or elliptic (1/26), or oblong (3/26); laterally compressed (19/26), or subterete (7/26); 3-38.49-170 mm long; breaking up at maturity (26/26); disarticulating below each fertile floret (26/26). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (18/25), or pubescent (7/25).
    Glume
    Glumes two (6/22), or several (16/22); persistent (21/22), or deciduous (1/22); shorter than spikelet (22/22). Lower glume ovate (7/7); 0.25-0.5167-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous (1/4), or coriaceous (3/4); without keels (3/3); 7-9 -veined (2/4), or 10 -veined (1/4), or 11 -veined (3/4), or 12-13 -veined (2/4), or 14-17 -veined (1/4). Lower glume surface smooth (21/22), or asperulous (1/22); glabrous (20/22), or pubescent (2/22). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/6), or acute (4/6), or rostrate (1/6); muticous (6/7), or mucronate (1/7). Upper glume lanceolate (2/17), or ovate (16/17); 0.5-0.65-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous (11/11); without keels (12/12); 7-9 -veined (2/9), or 10 -veined (1/9), or 11-12 -veined (6/9), or 13 -veined (7/9), or 14-15 -veined (6/9), or 16-17 -veined (5/9), or 18-19 -veined (1/9). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (21/22), or asperulous (1/22); glabrous (19/22), or puberulous (3/22), or pubescent (3/22). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/13), or acute (11/13), or rostrate (1/13); muticous (12/17), or mucronate (5/17).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (5/5); with palea (4/5), or without significant palea (2/5). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (2/5), or elliptic (1/5), or ovate (3/5); chartaceous (2/2); 10-14 -veined (1/4), or 15-16 -veined (2/4), or 17-20 -veined (1/4), or 23-27 -veined (1/4); obtuse (1/4), or acuminate (3/4); mucronate (5/5). Fertile lemma lanceolate (5/25), or elliptic (1/25), or ovate (22/25); coriaceous (26/26); without keel (26/26); 7-17-30 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/5), or prominent (4/5). Lemma surface smooth (25/26), or scaberulous (1/26); glabrous (17/26), or puberulous (6/26), or pubescent (6/26), or pilose (2/26). Lemma margins flat (25/26), or convolute (1/26); exposing palea (25/26), or covering most of palea (1/26); eciliate (20/26), or ciliolate (3/26), or ciliate (3/26). Lemma apex obtuse (2/25), or acute (17/25), or acuminate (3/25), or apiculate (3/25); muticous (14/26), or mucronate (12/26), or awned (2/26); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 0.75-0.9729-1 length of lemma; 6 -veined (1/9), or 8 -veined (2/9), or 9 -veined (6/9), or 10-11 -veined (5/9), or 12 -veined (3/9), or 13 -veined (2/9). Palea keels winged (26/26); eciliate (16/26), or pubescent (1/26), or ciliolate (6/26), or ciliate (3/26). Palea surface glabrous (20/26), or puberulous (1/26), or pubescent (5/26). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (23/26), or distinct from fertile (3/26); 1 in number (3/3); barren (1/1); rudimentary (2/3), or linear (1/3).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (26/26); membranous (3/3); glabrous (19/26), or ciliate (7/26). Anthers 3 (2/26), or 6 (24/26). Stigmas 3 (26/26). Ovary unappendaged (19/26), or umbonate (7/26); pubescent on apex (2/3), or pubescent all over (1/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (25/26), or fleshy pericarp (1/26); fusiform (4/7), or oblong (2/7), or ovoid (1/7), or obovoid (1/7). Embryo 0.2-0.2875-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    North America (6), or South America (27).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (138), or elongated (2); pachymorph (140/140). Culms erect (114/124), or geniculately ascending (3/124), or arching (2/124), or leaning (1/124), or scandent (4/124); 76-1047-3000 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (73/96), or with aerial roots from the nodes (11/96), or with root thorns from the nodes (26/96). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (21/31), or swollen (10/31); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (2/2). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (7/104), or two (6/104), or three (17/104), or several (76/104), or many (21/104); in a clump (19/19); with subequal branches (5/46), or 1 branch dominant (38/46), or 3 branches dominant (3/46); thinner than stem (17/17). Culm-sheaths persistent (4/99), or tardily deciduous (5/99), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (2/99), or deciduous (89/99); without auricles (17/118), or auriculate (102/118). Culm-sheath blade inconspicuous (1/123), or lanceolate (25/123), or narrowly ovate (18/123), or ovate (16/123), or triangular (80/123); constricted at base (10/43), or narrower than sheath (16/43), or as wide as sheath at base (7/43), or cordate (10/43). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (81), or erect (10), or falcate (58). Ligule an eciliate membrane (121), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (6). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (1), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (140). Leaf-blades persistent (132), or deciduous at the ligule (12); filiform (1), or linear (19), or lanceolate (126), or elliptic (1), or oblong (21), or ovate (4). Leaf-blade midrib evident (3/22), or conspicuous (19/22). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (129), or with obscure cross veins (8), or with distinct cross veins (6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (79/79); paniculate (1/79), or clustered at the nodes (78/79); in globose clusters (2/78), or stellate clusters (1/78), or oblong clusters (4/78), or untidy tufts (71/78); with glumaceous subtending bracts (59/75), or spathaceous subtending bracts (16/75); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (79/79); leafy between clusters (6/43), or leafless between clusters (36/43), or leafless between branches (3/43). Fertile spikelets sessile (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-13 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (3/79), or with a barren rhachilla extension (2/79), or with diminished florets at the apex (74/79). Spikelets linear (17/79), or lanceolate (49/79), or elliptic (1/79), or oblong (4/79), or ovate (15/79); laterally compressed (59/79), or subterete (20/79); 3.32-24.63-75 mm long; breaking up at maturity (79/79); rhachilla deciduous (78/79), or rhachilla persistent (1/79); disarticulating below each fertile floret (77/78), or above glumes but not between florets (1/78); shedding paleas (1/1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (59/76), or sparsely hairy (2/76), or pubescent (10/76), or pilose (6/76). Floret callus glabrous (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-13 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (3/79), or with a barren rhachilla extension (2/79), or with diminished florets at the apex (74/79). Spikelets linear (17/79), or lanceolate (49/79), or elliptic (1/79), or oblong (4/79), or ovate (15/79); laterally compressed (59/79), or subterete (20/79); 3.32-24.63-75 mm long; breaking up at maturity (79/79); rhachilla deciduous (78/79), or rhachilla persistent (1/79); disarticulating below each fertile floret (77/78), or above glumes but not between florets (1/78); shedding paleas (1/1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (59/76), or sparsely hairy (2/76), or pubescent (10/76), or pilose (6/76). Floret callus glabrous (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (1/78), or one the lower absent or obscure (8/78), or two (31/78), or several (45/78); persistent (43/43); shorter than spikelet (42/42). Lower glume oblong (1/22), or ovate (21/22); 0.7-0.75-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous (1/4), or coriaceous (3/4); without keels (5/5); 7 -veined (1/6), or 9 -veined (3/6), or 10-12 -veined (2/6), or 13 -veined (1/6), or 15-17 -veined (1/6). Lower glume surface glabrous (71/73), or pubescent (2/73). Lower glume apex obtuse (2/15), or acute (12/15), or acuminate (1/15); muticous (18/22), or mucronate (4/22). Upper glume lanceolate (2/34), or ovate (32/34); without auricles (77/78), or auriculate at base (1/78); 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (1/2), or coriaceous (1/2); without keels (3/3), or 1-keeled (1/3); 7 -veined (1/5), or 9-10 -veined (2/5), or 11 -veined (3/5), or 12-13 -veined (2/5), or 22 -veined (1/5). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (77/78), or scabrous (1/78); glabrous (76/78), or pubescent (2/78). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/19), or acute (15/19), or acuminate (2/19); muticous (27/34), or mucronate (7/34).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (17/78), or elliptic (2/78), or oblong (2/78), or ovate (63/78); chartaceous (4/5), or coriaceous (1/5); without keel (77/79), or keeled (2/79); 7-17-32 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/3), or distinct (1/3). Lemma surface smooth (77/79), or scabrous (2/79); glabrous (77/79), or puberulous (1/79), or pubescent (1/79). Lemma margins eciliate (57/79), or ciliolate (9/79), or ciliate (14/79). Lemma apex obtuse (7/74), or acute (56/74), or acuminate (8/74), or attenuate (1/74), or cuspidate (2/74), or apiculate (4/74); without ornament (76/79), or scabrous (1/79), or pubescent (2/79); muticous (62/79), or mucronate (16/79), or awned (1/79); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1-1.005-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (78/79), or chartaceous (1/79); 3-10-18 -veined; 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (1/79), or 2-keeled (78/79). Palea keels separated (77/79), or approximate (1/79), or contiguous above a sulcus (1/79); wingless (78/79), or winged (1/79); smooth (77/79), or scabrous (2/79); eciliate (22/79), or pubescent (3/79), or ciliolate (24/79), or ciliate (31/79). Palea surface glabrous (68/79), or puberulous (2/79), or pubescent (4/79), or pilose (6/79), or hirsute (1/79). Palea apex entire (2/6), or dentate (5/6). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (68/74), or distinct from fertile (7/74); 1 in number (7/7); male (1/5), or barren (4/5); rudimentary (4/6), or linear (1/6), or elliptic (1/6).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (6/78), or 2 (3/78), or 3 (71/78); membranous (67/67); glabrous (13/73), or ciliate (60/73). Anthers 3 (1/79), or 6 (78/79), or 7 (1/79). Stigmas 1 (6/77), or 2 (13/77), or 3 (69/77); plumose (71/79), or sparsely hairy (3/79), or pubescent (6/79), or retrorsely barbellate (1/79). Ovary unappendaged (30/79), or umbonate (49/79); glabrous (7/54), or with a few apical hairs (3/54), or pubescent on apex (44/54), or pubescent all over (1/54).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (52/52); fusiform (1/12), or ellipsoid (1/12), or oblong (5/12), or ovoid (4/12), or obovoid (1/12). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (86), or Tropical Asia (67), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (9), or North America (1), or South America (5).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Galápagos, Myanmar, Puerto Rico

    Guadua Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1988 Nee, M. [34515], Brazil K001106364
    Trail, J.W.H. [1280], Brazil K001106398
    Trail, J.W.H. [1281], Brazil K001106399
    Stannard, B.L. [469], Venezuela K000743050
    Hatschbach, G. [20546], Brazil K001106395
    Hatschbach, G. [20546], Brazil K001106396
    Martinelli, G. [12008], Brazil K001106347
    Martinelli, G. [12008], Brazil K001106348
    Martinelli, G. [12008], Brazil K001106349
    Martinelli, G. [9252], Brazil K001106352
    Irwin, H.S. [6714], Brazil K001106390
    Irwin, H.S. [6714], Brazil K001106391
    Ule, E. [9147], Brazil K001106392
    Eiten, G. [10595], Brazil K001106393
    Eiten, G. [10595], Brazil K001106394
    Kubitzki, K. [79/236], Brazil K001106353
    Kubitzki, K. [79-236], Brazil K001106354
    Calderon, C.E. [2355], Brazil K001106351
    Calderon, C.E. [2754], Brazil K001106356
    Calderon, C.E. [2818], Brazil K001106357
    Calderon, C.E. [2818], Brazil K001106358
    Calderon, C.E. [2818], Brazil K001106360
    Calderon, C.E. [2818], Brazil K001106361
    Calderon, C.E. [2282], Brazil K001106362
    Calderon, C.E. [2282], Brazil K001106363
    Calderon, C.E. [2873], Brazil K001106365
    Calderon, C.E. [2873], Brazil K001106366
    Calderon, C.E. [2873], Brazil K001106367
    Calderon, C.E. [2829], Brazil K001106404
    Calderon, C.E. [2829], Brazil K001106405
    Calderon, C.E. [2829], Brazil K001106406
    Calderon, C.E. [2846], Brazil K001106407
    Calderon, C.E. [2846], Brazil K001106408
    Calderon, C.E. [2846], Brazil K001106409
    Calderon, C.E. [2846], Brazil K001106410
    Calderon, C.E. [2813], Brazil K001106411
    Calderon, C.E. [2813], Brazil K001106412
    Calderon, C.E. [2813], Brazil K001106413
    Calderon, C.E. [2833], Brazil K001106414
    Calderon, C.E. [2833], Brazil K001106415
    Calderon, C.E. [2833], Brazil K001106416
    Calderon, C.E. [2833], Brazil K001106417
    Calderon, C.E. [2833], Brazil K001106418
    Calderon, C.E. [2910], Brazil K001106387
    Calderon, C.E. [2910], Brazil K001106388
    Calderon, C.E. [2910], Brazil K001106389
    Pereira, B.A.S. [2091], Brazil K001106386
    Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8334], Brazil K001106403
    Guedes, J. [2754], Brazil K001106355
    Burchell [8970], Brazil K001106397
    Spruce, R. [420], Brazil K001106400
    Spruce, R. [420], Brazil K001106401
    Calderón, E. [2355], Brazil K001106350
    Calderon, E.C. [2818], Brazil K001106359
    Setgio, L. [303], Brazil K001106402

    First published in J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 95: 150 (1822)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0