1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Harpachne Hochst. ex A.Rich.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Congo to Eritrea and S. Tropical Africa, Arabian. Peninsula, S. Central China.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or convolute; ligule a fringe of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an erect oblong raceme of loosely to densely crowded reflexed spikelets hanging on slender pedicels from the central rhachis; pedicels pubescent to villous, filiform near the rhachis, broadened below the spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several–many-flowered, with the lower florets usually shorter than the upper, strongly laterally compressed, falling entire, the pedicel fracturing near its attachment to the rhachis and remaining attached to the base of the spikelet as a pungent, often hooked appendage; glumes 1-nerved, unequal, narrow, keeled, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas 3-nerved, with the lateral nerves ± 2/3 as long as the lemma, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, thinly membranous to somewhat cartilaginous, scabrid along the keel, minutely ciliate along the margins, acuminate to narrowly acuminate-aristate; palea much shorter than the lemma, winged on the keels, shortly ciliate along the margins
    Fruits
    Caryopsis laterally compressed, obliquely elliptic in profile, light brown.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single ‘bottle-brush’ raceme with reflexed spikelets hanging on slender pedicels.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several–many-flowered, the lower florets usually shorter than the upper, strongly laterally compressed, falling entire, the pedicel fracturing near its attachment to the rhachis and remaining attached to the base of the spikelet as a pungent, often hooked appendage; glumes 1-nerved, unequal, narrow, keeled, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas 3-nerved, the lateral nerves c. 3/4 the length of the lemma, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, thinly membranous to somewhat cartilaginous, scabrid on the keel, minutely ciliate on the margins, acuminate to narrowly acuminate-aristate; palea gibbous, the keels winged.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis laterally compressed, obliquely elliptic in profile.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect (2/2), or geniculately ascending (1/2); 13-38.5-74 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; linear (2), or oblong (2); multilateral. Rhachis angular (2/2). Spikelet packing crowded (2), or lax (1). Spikelets pendulous (2/2); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; tip widened (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 6-7 fertile florets (1), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-10 fertile florets (1), or 11-13 fertile florets (2), or 14-18 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (2), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-10.96-21 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with the pedicel.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 6-7 fertile florets (1), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-10 fertile florets (1), or 11-13 fertile florets (2), or 14-18 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (2), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-10.96-21 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with the pedicel.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong; 0.6-0.6867-0.8 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (1). Upper glume oblong; 0.5-0.8167-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate (1/1); lanceolate in profile (2/2); membranous, or cartilaginous (2); of similar consistency above, or much thinner above (2); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex acuminate; muticous (1), or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 0.5-0.62-0.7 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; with entire wings (2), or erose wings (1); eciliate (1), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/2); laterally compressed (2/2); biconvex (2/2).
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, China South-Central, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Harpachne Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 431 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 431 (1851).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 431 (1851)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0