1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Helictotrichon Besser

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. Eurasia to Sumatera, NW. Africa, W. Central U.S.A.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (75), or short (18), or elongated (13). Stolons absent (97), or present (3). Culms erect (45/48), or geniculately ascending (13/48), or decumbent (4/48); robust (3/11), or slender (8/11); 10-62-160 cm long; without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (14/19), or elliptical in section (12/19). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (23/23). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (4/10), or tubular for much of their length (6/10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (83), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades persistent (99), or deciduous at the ligule (1); aciculate (2), or filiform (18), or linear (83); herbaceous (99), or fleshy (1); stiff (13), or firm (84), or flaccid (4); without exudate (98), or pruinose (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/2), or conspicuous (1/2). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/8), or cartilaginous (7/8). Leaf-blade apex muticous (95), or pungent (5).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (96), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Panicle open (76), or contracted (27). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (99). Pedicels filiform (1/9), or linear (3/9), or clavate (5/9); tip widened (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-4-10 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (34), or with diminished florets at the apex (75). Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (89), or cuneate (10); laterally compressed; 5-13.93-34 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (95), or above glumes but not between florets (5). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (20), or pubescent (7), or pilose (71), or villous (4). Floret callus brief (97), or evident (2), or elongated (1); pubescent (16/84), or pilose (68/84).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-4-10 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (34), or with diminished florets at the apex (75). Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (89), or cuneate (10); laterally compressed; 5-13.93-34 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (95), or above glumes but not between florets (5). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (20), or pubescent (7), or pilose (71), or villous (4). Floret callus brief (97), or evident (2), or elongated (1); pubescent (16/84), or pilose (68/84).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (93), or reaching apex of florets (8), or exceeding apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (53), or elliptic (45), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.7782-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (5), or membranous (89), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); without keels (2), or 1-keeled (98); 1 -veined (56), or 2 -veined (13), or 3 -veined (56), or 4 -veined (7), or 5 -veined (6). Lower glume lateral veins absent (55), or obscure (5), or distinct (52). Lower glume surface smooth (97), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (75), or acuminate (26), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (99), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (44), or elliptic (50), or oblong (8), or ovate (1); 0.5-1.006-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (89), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (85), or hyaline margins (14), or membranous margins (1); without keels (2), or 1-keeled (98); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (87), or 4 -veined (14), or 5 -veined (25), or 6 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (6). Upper glume surface smooth (94), or asperulous (6), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1). Upper glume apex acute (77), or acuminate (21), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (98), or mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (18), or elliptic (54), or oblong (24), or ovate (2), or obovate (4); membranous (2), or chartaceous (5), or herbaceous (4), or cartilaginous (90), or coriaceous (2); of similar consistency above (88), or much thinner above (12); of similar consistency on margins (95), or much thinner on margins (5); without keel (99), or keeled (1); 5 -veined (73/98), or 6 -veined (45/98), or 7 -veined (69/98), or 8 -veined (5/98), or 9 -veined (6/98), or 10-11 -veined (1/98). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (99), or scabrous (1); eciliate (97), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/4), or distinct (1/4), or prominent (1/4); without ribs (98), or ribbed (2); excurrent (3/3). Lemma surface smooth (64), or granulose (6), or asperulous (3), or scaberulous (13), or scabrous (14), or papillose (4), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (92), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (5), or pilose (1), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Lemma apex entire (4), or erose (1), or dentate (95), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (88/96), or 3 -fid (3/96), or 4 -fid (11/96); incised 0.25 of lemma length; emarginate (1/28), or obtuse (5/28), or acute (13/28), or acuminate (1/28), or attenuate (1/28), or setaceously attenuate (13/28); awned; 1 -awned (82), or 3 -awned (16), or 5 -awned (2). Principal lemma awn subapical (1), or dorsal; straight (4), or curved (2), or flexuous (2), or geniculate (93). Column of lemma awn glabrous (89/94), or puberulous (2/94), or pubescent (1/94), or hirtellous (2/94). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (4/4). Palea embraced by lemma (99), or gaping (1); 0.3-0.8187-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (99); 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels wingless (99), or winged (1); smooth (97), or scabrous (3); eciliate (26), or pubescent (6), or ciliolate (61), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (99), or puberulous (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (66/75), or distinct from fertile (9/75); rudimentary (8/8).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (22/22); membranous (9/9); glabrous (22/22), or ciliate (1/22); entire (1/1); obtuse (1/9), or acute (9/9). Anthers 1-2 (1), or 3. Stigmas 2 (1/1). Ovary glabrous (9/99), or pubescent on apex (87/99), or pubescent all over (3/99).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (95/95); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (1/5), or oblong (3/5). Embryo 0.1-0.241-0.35 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/92), or linear (91/92); 0.2-0.3472-0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent, or present (1); in upper sheaths (1/1), or in lower sheaths (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (38), or Africa (29), or Temperate Asia (30), or Tropical Asia (7), or Australasia (10), or North America (4), or South America (2).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2-6-flowered, awned, laterally compressed, usually pedicelled, narrowly oblong to elliptic-oblong in outline, relatively large; florets all similar, hermaphrodite, the terminal usually reduced; rhachilla slender, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, pilose, extended into a short bristle beyond the uppermost floret or terminated by a vestigial lemma; callus short, villous.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, unequal, persistent, keeled, herbaceous, sometimes hyaline, acute to acuminate; the inferior shorter, 1-3-nerved; the superior 3-5-nerved (rarely with a short, faint additional nerve).
    Lemma
    Lemmas usually exserted from or rarely enclosed by the glumes, narrowly lanceolate in profile, acute, dorsally awned, herbaceous, often with both apex and margins hyaline, rarely somewhat indurated at maturity, 5-11-nerved, 2-fid, sometimes with the apical lobes drawn out into slender bristles; awn usually inserted in the upper 1/2 of the lemma, usually geniculate and twisted beneath the bend.
    Palea
    Paleas shorter than the lemmas, 2-keeled, herbaceous to hyaline.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, relatively large.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary pilose towards the apex; styles short, with the stigmas laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to narrowly elliptic-oblong in outline, slightly laterally compressed, usually with a longitudinal frontal furrow, pilose towards the apex, falling out enclosed between lemma and palea; embryo small; hilum linear, up to 1/2 as long as the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Caespitose perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule a hyaline membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually narrow, erect or drooping.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Caespitose perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or folded, sometimes setaceous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a narrow panicle, erect or nodding
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–6-flowered, the florets similar, hermaphrodite, or the uppermost ± reduced; rhachilla disarticulating below each floret, slender, hairy, produced as a short bristle or ending with a rudimentary lemma; glumes unequal, keeled, hyaline to herbaceous, the lower 1–3-nerved, the upper 3–5-nerved, acute; lemmas narrowly lanceolate in profile, enclosed by or more often exserted from the glumes, herbaceous with hyaline tips and margins, sometimes becoming indurated, 5–11-nerved, bifid, geniculately awned from the upper part of the back; palea shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled; stamens 3; stigmas 2.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, France, Germany, Greece, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Magadan, Mongolia, Morocco, New Mexico, Qinghai, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Helictotrichon Besser appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J.A.Schultes & J.H.Schultes, Mant. 3: 526 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 10: 103 (1937).
    • Syst. Veg. 2, Addit. 52 (1827)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mant. Syst. Veg. 2, Addit.: 526 (1827).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Syst. Veg. 2, Addit.: 526 (1827)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0