1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Hemarthria R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to W. & SW. Australia.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose or stoloniferous, mostly rambling perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule a very short ciliate membrane; leaf laminas flat.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single axillary raceme embraced below by the subtending leaf sheath; racemes tough, dorsally compressed; internodes thickened, clavate, nearly always obliquely articulated, fused to the adjacent pedicel.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse to cuneate, rarely truncate; inferior glume narrowly elliptic, rigidly herbaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled, smooth, indistinctly winged above, obtuse, caudate or bifid at the apex; superior glume obtuse to long-acuminate; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma entire and awnless. Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile spikelet but truncate at the base and without a callus; pedicel flattened, broadly linear.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly obovoid, slightly dorsally compressed.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted or stoloniferous perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule a very short ciliate membrane
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme embraced below by the subtending sheath, borne in the upper axils of the culm; racemes tough, dorsally compressed; internodes thickened, clavate, nearly always obliquely articulated, fused to the adjacent pedicel
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; lower glume narrowly elliptic, rigidly herbaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled, smooth, indistinctly winged above, obtuse, caudate or bifid; upper glume obtuse to long acuminate; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly obovoid, slightly dorsally compressed
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet not unlike the sessile; pedicel flattened, broadly linear. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; lower glume narrowly elliptic, rigidly herbaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled, smooth, indistinctly winged above, obtuse, caudate or bifid; upper glume obtuse to long acuminate; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet not unlike the sessile; pedicel flattened, broadly linear.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (11). Stolons absent (5), or present (7). Culms erect (1/10), or geniculately ascending (1/10), or prostrate (8/10); 16.72-95.13-250 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (7/7). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (1/1). Lateral branches sparse (1/11), or ample (10/11). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (11). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (3), or an inflated leaf-sheath (9); exserted (11), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes single. Rhachis fracturing into irregular segments; flattened. Rhachis internodes columnar (8), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); unspecialized (3), or adherent to upper glume of sessile spikelet (9). Rhachis internode tip transverse (3), or oblique (9); flat. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; oblong; tip rectangular.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (1), or well-developed (11); deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (2/3), or awned (3/3). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (4), or elliptic (4), or oblong (6); dorsally compressed; 3-7.295-24 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (1), or cuneate (11); glabrous (11), or pubescent (1); base truncate; attached transversely (1), or attached obliquely (11).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (1), or well-developed (11); deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (2/3), or awned (3/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (4), or elliptic (4), or oblong (6); dorsally compressed; 3-7.295-24 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (1), or cuneate (11); glabrous (11), or pubescent (1); base truncate; attached transversely (1), or attached obliquely (11).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (4), or elliptic (4), or oblong (6); herbaceous (11), or coriaceous (1); 2-keeled; wingless (1), or winged on keel (11); 7 -veined (2/3), or 9-15 -veined (1/3). Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct (11/11). Lower glume surface convex (2), or flat (10); not waisted, or transversely waisted (2). Lower glume apex entire (11), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (3), or truncate (1), or obtuse (5), or acute (4), or acuminate (4), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1), or rostrate (1), or caudate (2); muticous, or awned (1). Upper glume linear (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (8); membranous (11), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 3 -veined, or 4-5 -veined (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/11), or acute (7/11), or acuminate (4/11), or attenuate (4/11), or setaceously attenuate (2/11), or cuspidate (1/11), or caudate (1/11); muticous, or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (4), or barren (9); with palea (5), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined (2/2); obtuse (11/11). Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse (11/11). Palea present (2), or absent or minute (10); hyaline (2/2); 0 -veined (2/2); without keels (2/2).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (10/10).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid (2/2); dorsally compressed (2/2).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (10), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Palestine, Primorye, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guyana, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Solomon Is., Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Hemarthria R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8871], Nepal K001131693
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8871], Nepal K001131694
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8871], Myanmar K001131698
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8871], Myanmar K001131699
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8872], India K001131700
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8872], India K001131701
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8872], India K001131702
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871] K001131690
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871], Bangladesh K001131691
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871], Bangladesh K001131692
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871] K001131695
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871] K001131696
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8871] K001131697

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 207 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 54 (1917).
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 207 (1810)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 207 (1810).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 207 (1810)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0