1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Heteropholis C.E.Hubb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule shortly membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, these both terminal and axillary; racemes cylindrical or slightly compressed; internodes thickened, clavate, fused to the adjacent pedicel
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet ± embedded in the internode; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled or sharply involute along the sides, muricate, winged at the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless Pedicelled spikelet thinly coriaceous, about the same size as the sessile or smaller; pedicel oblong, flattened.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet ± embedded in the internode; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled or sharply involute along the sides, muricate, winged at the tip; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, dorsally flattened
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet thinly coriaceous, about the same size as the sessile or smaller; pedicel oblong, flattened.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (2). Rhizomes absent (5), or short (1). Culms erect (1/2), or decumbent (1/2); robust (1/1); 20-77.5-200 cm long; with prop roots (1/2), or rooting from lower nodes (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (1/3), or sparse (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blades linear (4), or lanceolate (2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (4), or terminal and axillary (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Peduncle widened at apex (4/4). Racemes single; unilateral; bearing 5 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 6-10 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 12-20 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (1), or semiterete (3), or subcylindrical and excavated (2). Rhachis internodes columnar (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (3); unspecialized (5), or adherent to upper glume of sessile spikelet (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Spikelets sunken (5), or appressed (1); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; linear (2), or oblong (4); tip rectangular.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (2), or well-developed (4); persistent (1/5), or separately deciduous (4/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (2), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.826-3.568-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (5), or cuneate (1); glabrous (3/4), or bearded (1/4); base truncate; with central boss (1), or with central peg (5); attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (2), or well-developed (4); persistent (1/5), or separately deciduous (4/5).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (2), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.826-3.568-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (5), or cuneate (1); glabrous (3/4), or bearded (1/4); base truncate; with central boss (1), or with central peg (5); attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (1); coriaceous (3), or indurate (3); 2-keeled; wingless (2), or winged on keel (4); 5-7 -veined (1/4), or 11 -veined (3/4). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (5). Lower glume surface smooth (2), or rugose (1), or cancellate (1), or areolate (2); glabrous (4), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex emarginate (1/3), or truncate (1/3), or obtuse (2/3). Upper glume oblong (4), or ovate (2); membranous (5), or indurate (1); without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); 3 -veined (2/3), or 5 -veined (1/3). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (5).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1), or barren (5); with palea (1), or without significant palea (5). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (2), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline; 2 -veined (1/1); obtuse (1/1). Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline; without keel; 2 -veined (2/2), or 3 -veined (1/2). Palea 0.9 length of lemma; 0 -veined (1/1); without keels (1), or 2-keeled (5).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (4/4).
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (3).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule shortly membranous; leaf laminas flat.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single axillary raceme; racemes cylindrical or slightly dorsally compressed; internodes thickened, clavate, fused to the adjacent pedicel.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet ± embedded in the internode; callus truncate, with prominent central boss or peg; inferior glume crustaceous, broadly convex, 2-keeled or sharply involute along the sides, the back smooth, cancellate or areolate, winged at the apex; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma or sometimes with a palea; superior lemma entire and awnless. Pedicelled spikelet thinly coriaceous, about the same size as the sessile spikelet or smaller; pedicel oblong, flattened.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, dorsally flattened.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Madagascar, Malawi, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Heteropholis C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hooker's Icon. Pl. 36: t. 3548 (1956)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 36: t. 3548 (1956).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Hook., Ic. Pl. 36, t.3548 (1956)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0