1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Heteropogon Pers.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Central Europe to Tropical & Subtropical.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (3). Culms erect (3/3); robust (1/1); 30-97-250 cm long; with prop roots (1/1). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches fastigiate (2/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (4). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (4), or compound (1); paniculate (1/1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (4), or terminal and axillary (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or a spatheole (1); exserted (4), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (1/1); herbaceous (1/1). Racemes single; erect (4), or ascending (1); unilateral (4/4); bearing 5-10 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes linear (4), or cuneate (1). Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (4), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong (4/4).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 4.5-9.25-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 4.5-9.25-15 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (4), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1); coriaceous; without keels; 7-8 -veined (1/3), or 9 -veined (3/3). Lower glume surface convex (3), or grooved on either side of midvein (2); puberulous (2), or pubescent (4), or pilose (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex truncate (2), or obtuse (3). Upper glume linear; coriaceous; with undifferentiated margins (4), or membranous margins (1); without keels; wingless (4), or winged on margins (1); 3 -veined (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (4), or 2 -veined (1). Fertile lemma linear, or oblong (1); membranous; 1 -veined (4), or 3 -veined (1). Lemma apex awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn geniculate. Column of lemma awn pubescent (3), or hirtellous (2). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (4); 0.2-0.25-0.3 length of lemma.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia, or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (2).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule very short, membranous, ciliate on the upper edge; leaf laminas linear.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, these terminal and axillary, sometimes loosely aggregated into a false panicle, partially enclosed by a narrow spatheole; racemes with homogamous spikelet pairs for the inferior 1/4–2/3 of their length; internodes linear, the pedicels reduced to a minute stump.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis lanceolate, channelled on one side.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, lanceolate, larger than the sessile spikelet, awnless, with a long slender callus functioning as a pedicel. Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent; inferior glume coriaceous, convex without a median groove, obtuse at the apex; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma stipitiform, entire, passing directly into a stout pilose awn.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule very short, membranous, ciliate on the upper edge
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, these arising terminally and in the axils, sometimes loosely aggregated into a false panicle; racemes with homogamous spikelets for the lower 1/4–2/3 of their length; internodes linear
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent; lower glume coriaceous, convex, obtuse; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, passing directly into a hairy awn
    Fruits
    Caryopsis lanceolate, channelled on one side
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, lanceolate, larger than the sessile, awnless, with a long slender callus functioning as a pedicel (true pedicel reduced to a little stump). Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent; lower glume coriaceous, convex, obtuse; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, passing directly into a hairy awn
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, lanceolate, larger than the sessile, awnless, with a long slender callus functioning as a pedicel (true pedicel reduced to a little stump).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Cook Is., Nansei-shoto, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Heteropogon Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 410 (1919).
    • Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0