1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Hymenachne P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central Tropical Africa, Assam to S. China and Indo-China, NE. Australia, Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (5), or elongated (2). Culms erect (1/6), or decumbent (5/6); robust (3/3); 20-176.6-400 cm long; spongy (1), or firm (6); rooting from lower nodes (5/5). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/4), or ample (2/4). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear (2), or lanceolate (6); stiff (1), or firm (6). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/2). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (3), or contracted (2), or spiciform (2). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (5), or in pairs (2), or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (1/5), or linear (2/5), or oblong (2/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (5), or elliptic (2); dorsally compressed; 1.7-3.17-5.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (5), or elliptic (2); dorsally compressed; 1.7-3.17-5.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (3), or reaching apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping (3/3); hyaline (5), or membranous (2); without keels; 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (5), or 5-7 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (6); without ribs (5/6), or ribbed (1/6). Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (5), or cuspidate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (4), or elliptic (3); membranous; without keels; 3 -veined (2/6), or 4 -veined (1/6), or 5 -veined (4/6), or 7 -veined (1/6). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (6), or ribbed (1). Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (1), or caudate (1); muticous (3), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1), or barren (6); with palea (1), or without significant palea (6). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (4), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (6); without ribs (6), or ribbed (1); obtuse (1), or acute (3), or acuminate (1), or caudate (2). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (3); dorsally compressed (2/2); chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (5); of similar consistency on margins (6), or much thinner on margins (1); without keel; 3 -veined (4/5), or 5 -veined (1/5). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute (4), or acuminate (3); without ornament (5), or scabrous (2). Palea embraced by lemma (3), or separating from lemma above (4); not rolled (1), or involute (6); 0.8-0.95-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (5); 2 -veined (4/4); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (3).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (6/6).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); ellipsoid (2/4), or oblong (1/4), or obovoid (1/4). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (1), or North America (1), or South America (4).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect; 70-130 cm long. Lateral branches sparse. Ligule a ciliolate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; membranous; 5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; membranous; without keels; 6-7 -veined. Upper glume apex laterally pinched.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; membranous; laterally pinched at apex. Fertile lemma lanceolate; dorsally compressed; membranous; without keel. Lemma apex acute. Palea gaping.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Australasia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laos, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Florida, Nepal, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Taiwan, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

    Hymenachne P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 48 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0