1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (16), or perennial (40). Rhizomes absent (42), or short (12), or elongated (2). Culms erect (49/55), or geniculately ascending (7/55), or decumbent (6/55), or rambling (2/55); robust (15/25), or slender (10/25); 5-144.2-400 cm long; firm (51), or wiry (5); without nodal roots (5/13), or with prop roots (13/13). Lateral branches fastigiate (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (52), or erect (6). Ligule an eciliate membrane (54), or a ciliolate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (55), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (12), or firm (43), or flaccid (3). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (1), or compound (55); scanty (11/55), or linear (2/55), or paniculate (40/55), or fastigiate (1/55), or fasciculate (2/55), or globose (1/55). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (1), or terminal and axillary (55); subtended by a spatheole; exserted (22), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (21), or enclosed (22). Spatheole linear (26), or lanceolate (37), or ovate (2); membranous (48), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (7). Racemes paired; side by side, or end to end (1); appressed (2), or erect (18), or ascending (2), or spreading (3), or deflexed (34); unilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (49), or many spikelets (9); bearing 1-3-13 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Spikelet packing contiguous (55), or lax (1). Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform (22), or linear (4), or flattened (33); subequal (29), or unequal (the longer measured) (28); unappendaged (40), or scariously rimmed (6), or shortly lobed (6), or extended into an oblong appendage (9). Spikelets appressed (55/55); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; tip oblique.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; not involucral (50), or forming an involucre about the fertile (6). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (52), or square (4), or oblong (1). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (30/55), or mucronate (15/55), or awned (34/55).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (10), or lanceolate (43), or elliptic (2), or oblong (13), or ovate (1), or oblanceolate (1); dorsally compressed; 3.32-6.342-20 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (2), or square (4), or oblong (7), or cuneate (35), or linear (15); pubescent (53), or pilose (3); base truncate (1), or obtuse (16), or acute (23), or pungent (21); attached obliquely. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; not involucral (50), or forming an involucre about the fertile (6). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (52), or square (4), or oblong (1). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (30/55), or mucronate (15/55), or awned (34/55).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (10), or lanceolate (43), or elliptic (2), or oblong (13), or ovate (1), or oblanceolate (1); dorsally compressed; 3.32-6.342-20 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (2), or square (4), or oblong (7), or cuneate (35), or linear (15); pubescent (53), or pilose (3); base truncate (1), or obtuse (16), or acute (23), or pungent (21); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; chartaceous (1), or coriaceous; without keels; 5 -veined (1/7), or 9 -veined (5/7), or 10 -veined (1/7), or 11 -veined (2/7). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (53), or ribbed (5). Lower glume surface convex (51), or flat (3), or concave (6), or grooved on either side of midvein (2); smooth (54), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1), or spinose (1); glabrous (29), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (23), or pilose (10), or hirsute (6), or villous (19), or hispidulous (8). Lower glume apex entire (5), or dentate (51); 2 -fid (51/51); truncate (1/1). Upper glume linear (55), or lanceolate (1); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (1), or coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (54), or pubescent (1), or hirsute (1). Upper glume apex entire (55), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (2/2); muticous (54), or mucronate (2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (1/54), or 2 -veined (53/54); truncate (1/1). Fertile lemma linear (55), or ovate (1); membranous; without keel; 1 -veined (54/54). Lemma margins eciliate (54), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (54); 2 -fid (54/54); emarginate (1/2), or truncate (1/2); mucronate (2), or awned (55); 1 -awned (55/55). Principal lemma awn apical (1), or from a sinus (55); straight (1), or geniculate (55); limb glabrous (55), or puberulous (1). Column of lemma awn glabrous (1/55), or hispidulous (1/55), or puberulous (16/55), or pubescent (34/55), or ciliate (1/55), or hirtellous (9/55), or hirsute (3/55). Palea present (2), or absent or minute (54).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (53/53); fleshy (53/53). Anthers 3 (54/54). Stigmas 2 (54/54).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); ellipsoid (1/2), or oblong (1/2); dorsally compressed (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (55), or Temperate Asia (12), or Tropical Asia (11), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (3), or North America (5), or South America (3).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, never aromatic; ligule scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes, each pair supported on a peduncle and subtended by a sheathing spatheole, the latter crowded into a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, slender, each raceme borne upon a short stalk (raceme-base) which is often deflexed at maturity, and with up to 2 of the lowermost spikelet pairs (homogamous pairs) ♂ or barren, awnless and tardily deciduous; internodes and pedicels linear
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, dorsally compressed or terete; callus obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode with its tip free; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex across the back and sides, without keels or these developed only in the uppermost third; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with pubescent or hirtellous column Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, usually a little longer than the sessile, awnless or aristulate from the lower glume.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, dorsally compressed or terete; callus obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode with its tip free; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex across the back and sides, without keels or these developed only in the uppermost third; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with pubescent or hirtellous column
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, subterete
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, narrowly lanceolate, usually a little longer than the sessile, awnless or aristulate from the lower glume.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule scarious; leaf laminas linear, never aromatic.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes, each pair supported on a peduncle and subtended by a sheathing spatheole, the latter crowded together in a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, slender, each borne upon a short stalk (raceme-base) which is often deflexed at maturity, and with up to 2 of the lowermost spikelet pairs (homogamous pairs) male or barren, awnless and tardily deciduous; internodes and pedicels linear.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, dorsally compressed or terete; callus obtuse to pungent, applied obliquely to the apex of the internode with its tip free; inferior glume coriaceous, broadly convex across the back and sides, without keels or these developed only in the uppermost third; superior glume awnless; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma stipitiform, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with pubescent or hirtellous column. Pedicelled spikelet male or barren, narrowly lanceolate, usually a little longer than the sessile spikelet, awnless or aristulate from the inferior glume.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, subterete.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Baleares, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Bangladesh, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, California, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Haiti, Hawaii, Jawa, Leeward Is., Marianas, Mexico Northeast, Northern Territory, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Society Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Victoria, Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Asongani, J.N. [1328], Cameroon K000339600
    Jun 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [9792], Cameroon K000339602
    Jun 1, 1998 Asongani, J.N. [1327], Cameroon K000339599

    First published in Mexic. Pl. 2: 51, 67 (1886)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bull., Add. Ser. No. 2 (1969).
    • F.T.A. 9: 291 (1919)
    • Mex. Pl. 2: 51 (1886)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton, A revision of the genus Hyparrhenia in Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 2 (1969).
    • Mexic. Pl. 2: 51 (1886).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B., Addit. Ser. 2 (1969)
    • Mex. Pl. 2: 51 (1886)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0