1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Isachne R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (32), or perennial (67). Rhizomes absent (92), or elongated (4). Stolons absent (94), or present (2). Culms erect (29/92), or geniculately ascending (32/92), or decumbent (30/92), or prostrate (15/92), or rambling (12/92), or leaning (1/92), or scandent (4/92); robust (2/16), or slender (11/16), or weak (3/16); 2-53.61-600 cm long; firm (88), or wiry (4), or woody (5); without nodal roots (2/35), or rooting from lower nodes (35/35). Culm-internodes terete (3/3). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (4/30), or sparse (8/30), or ample (20/30), or fastigiate (1/30). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (85), or absent (10). Leaf-blades linear (33), or lanceolate (74), or elliptic (8), or oblong (3), or ovate (17); membranous (2), or herbaceous (90), or coriaceous (4); stiff (15), or firm (80), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/7), or evident (1/7), or conspicuous (3/7). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (95), or with distinct cross veins (1). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (5/48), or cartilaginous (45/48). Leaf-blade apex muticous (95), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1); terminal (95), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (94), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Panicle open (89), or contracted (7), or spiciform (1). Racemes single (1/1); paucilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/1). Spikelet packing lax (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/2), or spreading (1/2); solitary (94), or in pairs (2). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (24/27), or linear (1/27), or clavate (2/27); tip rectangular (1/4), or widened (3/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/21), or 1 basal sterile florets (21/21); 1 fertile florets (26), or 2 fertile florets (73); without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (8), or ovate (14), or orbicular (50), or obovate (21); of unremarkable solid shape (95), or globose (1); subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (95); 0.5-1.923-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (76), or above glumes but not between florets (20). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (92), or elongated between glumes (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2); suppressed between florets (10/74), or definite (64/74); glabrous (62/64), or pubescent (2/64). Floret callus woolly (2/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/21), or 1 basal sterile florets (21/21); 1 fertile florets (26), or 2 fertile florets (73); without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (8), or ovate (14), or orbicular (50), or obovate (21); of unremarkable solid shape (95), or globose (1); subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (95); 0.5-1.923-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (76), or above glumes but not between florets (20). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (92), or elongated between glumes (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2); suppressed between florets (10/74), or definite (64/74); glabrous (62/64), or pubescent (2/64). Floret callus woolly (2/2).
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; shorter than spikelet (41), or reaching apex of florets (45), or exceeding apex of florets (15); thinner than fertile lemma; incurved at apex (1), or parallel to lemmas (93), or gaping (2). Lower glume lanceolate (9), or elliptic (19), or oblong (14), or ovate (54), or orbicular (14), or obovate (6); 0.8-0.9966-1.1 length of upper glume; membranous (90), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); without keels; 3 -veined (8/80), or 4 -veined (2/80), or 5 -veined (44/80), or 6 -veined (16/80), or 7 -veined (40/80), or 8 -veined (18/80), or 9 -veined (23/80), or 10-11 -veined (4/80). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (6), or distinct (90). Lower glume surface convex (95), or flat (1); smooth (89), or asperulous (5), or scabrous (4); glabrous (51), or puberulous (15), or pubescent (23), or pilose (4), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (12), or hispid (5), or setose (3). Lower glume apex emarginate (1/95), or truncate (1/95), or obtuse (64/95), or acute (22/95), or acuminate (7/95), or cuspidate (5/95). Upper glume lanceolate (8), or elliptic (19), or oblong (7), or ovate (56), or orbicular (15), or obovate (8); 1-1.117-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (90), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (87), or hyaline margins (9); without keels; 3 -veined (3/75), or 4 -veined (2/75), or 5 -veined (39/75), or 6 -veined (18/75), or 7 -veined (43/75), or 8 -veined (17/75), or 9 -veined (26/75), or 10-11 -veined (7/75). Upper glume surface smooth (90), or asperulous (5), or scabrous (3); glabrous (49), or puberulous (17), or pubescent (19), or pilose (8), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (11), or hispid (5), or setose (4); with simple hairs (57/65), or tubercle-based hairs (8/65). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/95), or truncate (2/95), or obtuse (65/95), or acute (22/95), or acuminate (4/95), or attenuate (1/95), or cuspidate (5/95), or caudate (1/95).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (24/24); with palea (22/22). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (11/22), or oblong (6/22), or ovate (9/22); 1-1.37-1.7 length of fertile lemma; membranous (5/18), or chartaceous (7/18), or herbaceous (2/18), or cartilaginous (2/18), or coriaceous (3/18); 5 -veined (5/6), or 6 -veined (1/6), or 7 -veined (2/6), or 8-9 -veined (1/6); without grooves (25/26), or sulcate (1/26); obtuse (9/11), or acute (2/11). Fertile florets bisexual (90), or female (11). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (32), or oblong (9), or ovate (30), or orbicular (41), or obovate (8); hemispherical (5/5); chartaceous (4), or cartilaginous (10), or coriaceous (77), or indurate (6); without keel; 0 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (12/14), or 6 -veined (9/14), or 7 -veined (10/14), or 8-9 -veined (1/14). Lemma lateral veins obscure (11/11). Lemma surface smooth (93), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled (95), or rugulose (1); glabrous (47), or puberulous (35), or pubescent (18), or pilose (1). Lemma margins involute; exposing palea (92), or interlocking with palea keels (4); eciliate (92), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (3). Lemma apex obtuse (93), or acute (2), or acuminate (1); without ornament, or pubescent (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (4), or cartilaginous (8), or coriaceous (78), or indurate (5); 0 -veined (1/78), or 2 -veined (77/78). Palea surface glabrous (87), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (4), or pilose (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 1 (1/7), or 2 (6/7); fleshy (4/4). Anthers 2 (1/80), or 3 (80/80).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (78/78); ellipsoid (5/13), or oblong (1/13), or ovoid (4/13), or orbicular (3/13), or obovoid (1/13); laterally compressed (1/3), or dorsally compressed (2/3); plano-convex (3/3).
    Distribution
    Africa (14), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (59), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (9), or North America (3), or South America (12).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Inflorescence a panicle.
    Florets
    Florets similar or dissimilar, separated by an abbreviated internode, the lower sometimes male.
    Glume
    Glumes subequal, 3/4 to as long as spikelet, 5–9-nerved.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma crisply chartaceous to crustaceous. Inferior lemma membranous to coriaceous.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Animals or perennials, often aquatic; culms commonly ascending from a prostrate base
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate or ovate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2-flowered, with the florets similar or dissimilar, the lower ♂ or hermaphrodite, the upper ♀ or hermaphrodite; rhachilla disarticulating below each floret; glumes falling soon after the florets, subequal, two-thirds to as long as the spikelet, membranous; lemmas elliptic-oblong to orbicular, obscurely 5–7-nerved, obtuse, the lower similar to the upper or larger and thinner, the upper chartaceous to thinly coriaceous; stamens 3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid to suborbicular, dorsally flattened on one side.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ethiopia

    Isachne R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131137
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8655] K001131130
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8658], Nepal K001131140
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8656], Myanmar K001131133
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131134
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131135
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131136
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8657] K001131139
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8655] K001131128
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131131
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8656] K001131138
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8659] K001131141
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8659], India K001131142
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8659], India K001131143
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8655], Myanmar K001131129
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8656], Myanmar K001131132

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 196 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 1090 (1934).
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 196 (1810)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 196 (1810).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 196 (1810)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0