1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Leptochloa P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to U.S.A.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted or rhizomatous annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear or lanceolate, usually flat; ligule short, membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence open, composed of several to numerous slender secund racemes scattered along a central axis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-several-flowered, laterally compressed, usually overlapping, biseriate, disarticulating between the florets; glumes 1-nerved, membranous, keeled, usually shorter than the lemmas, subequal to unequal, persistent; lemmas 3-nerved, membranous, keeled, minutely hairy along the nerves and sometimes also on the back, acute or obtuse, entire or emarginate, awnless (in the African species)
    Fruits
    Caryopses various.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence of several to many slender racemes on an elongated central axis, rarely subdigitate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–several-flowered, laterally compressed or subterete, biseriate, subsessile or shortly pedicelled, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes persistent, membranous, 1-nerved, unequal or subequal, shorter than the spikelet; lemmas 3-nerved, keeled or dorsally rounded, membranous, glabrous or appressed-pilose on the nerves, obtuse or 2-toothed at the apex, rarely acute or acuminate, sometimes mucronate, rarely with a short awn.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis laterally or dorsally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (14), or perennial (26). Rhizomes absent (34), or short (1), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (35), or present (2). Culms erect (19/28), or geniculately ascending (8/28), or decumbent (9/28); 10-81.97-270 cm long; firm (36), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (1/5), or rooting from lower nodes (5/5). Culm-internodes terete (4/4), or elliptical in section (2/4). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (10/14), or sparse (9/14), or ample (2/14). Ligule an eciliate membrane (26), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (1), or linear (34), or lanceolate (4), or oblong (1); herbaceous (36), or coriaceous (1); stiff (3), or firm (33), or flaccid (1); without exudate (36), or viscid (1). Leaf-blade midrib widened (2/2). Leaf-blade apex muticous (36), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (36), or terminal and axillary (1); exserted (35), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes digitate (2), or borne along a central axis (35); erect (5), or ascending (34), or spreading (6), or deflexed (1); unilateral. Rhachis semiterete (30/30). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (3), or contiguous (28), or lax (9); 2 -rowed (27/27). Raceme-bases brief (36), or filiform (1). Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (27), or pedicelled (16). Pedicels filiform (3/6), or linear (2/6), or oblong (2/6).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-5-15 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (2), or with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex (33). Spikelets elliptic (15), or oblong (23), or ovate (1); laterally compressed; 1-4.618-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (35), or evident (2); glabrous (2/8), or sparsely hairy (1/8), or pubescent (5/8), or bearded (1/8), or woolly (1/8).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-5-15 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (2), or with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex (33). Spikelets elliptic (15), or oblong (23), or ovate (1); laterally compressed; 1-4.618-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (35), or evident (2); glabrous (2/8), or sparsely hairy (1/8), or pubescent (5/8), or bearded (1/8), or woolly (1/8).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (35), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (3). Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (24), or oblong (4), or ovate (10); 0.3-0.7519-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (36); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (5/36), or acute (28/36), or acuminate (10/36); muticous (36), or mucronate (1), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate (12), or elliptic (8), or oblong (12), or ovate (8), or obovate (2); 0.5-0.9287-1.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (36); 1 -veined, or 2-3 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (2). Upper glume apex emarginate (3/34), or truncate (1/34), or obtuse (13/34), or acute (22/34), or acuminate (6/34), or cuspidate (1/34); muticous (32), or mucronate (6).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (9), or oblong (27), or ovate (10), or obovate (1); membranous; without keel (6), or keeled (31); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (34), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (2); eciliate (17), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (18). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1); less than two thirds length of lemma (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (35), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (30), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or villous (1); hairy on back (5/7), or on veins (3/7). Lemma margins eciliate (4), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (5), or pubescent (21), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (28), or dentate (14); 2 -fid (14/14); emarginate (16/32), or truncate (3/32), or obtuse (12/32), or acute (7/32), or acuminate (4/32); muticous (24), or mucronate (14), or awned (7); 1 -awned (7/7). Principal lemma awn apical (17/19), or from a sinus (2/19). Palea 0.66-0.9017-1 length of lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (35); 2 -veined (36/36). Palea keels smooth (31), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (3); eciliate (20), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (10), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (30), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (33/33).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (7/7); fleshy (6/6). Anthers 2 (2/20), or 3 (18/20).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (27/35), or tardily free pericarp (1/35), or free soft pericarp (7/35); ellipsoid (13/18), or oblong (9/18), or ovoid (2/18), or obovoid (1/18); isodiametric (8/12), or laterally compressed (1/12), or dorsally compressed (1/12), or flattened (2/12); biconvex (1/11), or plano-convex (2/11), or concavo-convex (3/11), or trigonous (5/11); rugose (2/2). Embryo 0.5-0.55-0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (13), or Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (12), or Australasia (9), or Pacific (6), or North America (10), or South America (12).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons absent (1), or present. Culms 70-100-150 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blade midrib evident.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate; erect (1), or ascending (1); unilateral. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.625-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.625-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.25-0.5375-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (1), or asperulous (1); glabrous (1), or puberulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex acute; awned; 3 -awned. Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (1), or shorter than principal (1). Palea apex with excurrent keel veins. Apical sterile florets 1-3 in number (1); barren; linear (1), or lanceolate (1). Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; dorsally compressed; concavo-convex.
    Distribution
    North America, or South America.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Burundi, Cape Verde, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Hawaii, Malawi, Masachusettes, Mozambique, Namibia, New York, Nicobar Is., Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia

    Leptochloa P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3805], India K001117250
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3805], Myanmar K001117251
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3805], Myanmar K001117252
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8895] K001131789
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8895] K001131790
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3804], India K001117249
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3805], India K001117253
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3805], India K001117254
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3806], India K001117255

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 71 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Ess. Agrost. 71 (1812).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ess. Agrostogr.: 71, t. 15/1 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 71, t. 15/1 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0