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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Siberia and Korea, Mauritania to Caucasus and Indian Subcontinent.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (6), or perennial (1). Culms erect, or geniculately ascending (3), or decumbent (4); 14-51.35-104 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles absent (3), or falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 3-6 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 7-12 fertile spikelets on each (4/4), or 13-15 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 16-19 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 20 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis semiterete (6), or subcylindrical and excavated (1). Spikelet packing adaxial; 2 -rowed. Spikelets sunken (1), or appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5-8 fertile florets, or 9 fertile florets (6), or 10 fertile florets (4), or 11-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14.67-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5-8 fertile florets, or 9 fertile florets (6), or 10 fertile florets (4), or 11-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14.67-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; shorter than spikelet (5), or reaching apex of florets (5), or exceeding apex of florets (3). Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong (1); coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (3), or 5-6 -veined (6), or 7 -veined, or 8-9 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (3). Upper glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse, or acute (5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); coriaceous; of similar consistency above (4), or much thinner above (3); without keel; 1-2 -veined (1), or 3-4 -veined (4), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (2), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous (1); glabrous, or puberulous (1). Lemma apex entire (3), or erose (4), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (6), or acute (2), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (1); muticous (4), or awned (6); 1 -awned (6/6). Principal lemma awn apical (2/6), or subapical (4/6); straight (5/6), or flexuous (1/6). Palea 1-1.033-1.1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (3/3); membranous (3/3). Anthers 3 (4/4). Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/4); linear (1/4), or fusiform (1/4), or ellipsoid (1/4), or oblong (1/4), or ovoid (1/4). Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe (6), or Africa, or Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (3), or North America (4), or South America (5), or Antarctica (4).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat or rolled, auriculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a stiff 2-sided spike, the spikelets alternate in opposite rows with one edge sunk in hollows in the continuous axis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–12-flowered, the uppermost florets reduced; lower (adaxial) glume suppressed in all except the terminal spikelets and there similar to the upper; upper glume persistent, external, linear to oblong, 5–9-nerved, becoming hardened; lemmas rounded on the back, 5–9-nerved, awnless or with a straight awn from near the tip; palea as long or nearly as long as the lemma
Distribution
Species ± 12; temperate Europe and Asia, widely introduced elsewhere
Note
Some of the species will also hybridize freely with certain species of Festuca, and this has sometimes been considered an indication that the two genera should be united. The taxonomy of the genus is confused by the relative ease with which the species will hybridize and introgress

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets sessile, solitary, 3-11-flowered, usually laterally compressed, rarely subcylindrical, awned or muticous; florets hermaphrodite but the uppermost often reduced; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2 in the uppermost terminal spikelet, 1 (the superior) in the lateral spikelets, persistent, abaxial, 7-9-nerved, linear to oblong, chartaceous to coriaceous, not keeled, with the apex obtuse to acute, awnless.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas 5-7(-9)-nerved, membranous to chartaceous, dorsally rounded, oblong with the apex subobtuse and usually shortly 2-dentate, glabrous, awnless or awned from near the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas about as long as the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, chartaceous-membranous, elliptic or oblong, apex obtuse and often minutely 2-dentate, keels crested or ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, minute, ovate-lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous, obovate-truncate, styles distinct, rather short, plumose for the whole length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis elliptic-oblong to linear-oblong in outline, dorsally with a longitudinal groove, ventrally sulcate, with a short apical appendage; hilum linear.
Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials of various habitats.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule a hyaline membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a solitary terminal spike, with the spikelets arranged in 2 ranks on opposite sides of the rhachis and inserted alternatively in depressions edgewise to it.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms 30-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 6-17 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis semiterete. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 3-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 3-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid.
Distribution
Europe.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritania, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New York, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Extinct in:

Jawa

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Florida, Free State, Galápagos, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Malaya, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Georgia, St.Helena, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

Lolium L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 36 (1754).5
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 83 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Terrell, U.S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bull. 1392 (1968)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 36 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0