1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Lolium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Siberia and Korea, Mauritania to Caucasus and Indian Subcontinent.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (1). Culms erect, or geniculately ascending (3), or decumbent (4); 14-51.35-104 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles absent (3), or falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 3-6 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 7-12 fertile spikelets on each (4/4), or 13-15 fertile spikelets on each (3/4), or 16-19 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 20 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis semiterete (6), or subcylindrical and excavated (1). Spikelet packing adaxial; 2 -rowed. Spikelets sunken (1), or appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5-8 fertile florets, or 9 fertile florets (6), or 10 fertile florets (4), or 11-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14.67-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5-8 fertile florets, or 9 fertile florets (6), or 10 fertile florets (4), or 11-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14.67-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; shorter than spikelet (5), or reaching apex of florets (5), or exceeding apex of florets (3). Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong (1); coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (3), or 5-6 -veined (6), or 7 -veined, or 8-9 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (3). Upper glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse, or acute (5).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); coriaceous; of similar consistency above (4), or much thinner above (3); without keel; 1-2 -veined (1), or 3-4 -veined (4), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (2), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous (1); glabrous, or puberulous (1). Lemma apex entire (3), or erose (4), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (6), or acute (2), or acuminate (1), or attenuate (1); muticous (4), or awned (6); 1 -awned (6/6). Principal lemma awn apical (2/6), or subapical (4/6); straight (5/6), or flexuous (1/6). Palea 1-1.033-1.1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (3/3); membranous (3/3). Anthers 3 (4/4). Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/4); linear (1/4), or fusiform (1/4), or ellipsoid (1/4), or oblong (1/4), or ovoid (1/4). Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    Europe (6), or Africa, or Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (3), or North America (4), or South America (5), or Antarctica (4).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or rolled, auriculate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a stiff 2-sided spike, the spikelets alternate in opposite rows with one edge sunk in hollows in the continuous axis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–12-flowered, the uppermost florets reduced; lower (adaxial) glume suppressed in all except the terminal spikelets and there similar to the upper; upper glume persistent, external, linear to oblong, 5–9-nerved, becoming hardened; lemmas rounded on the back, 5–9-nerved, awnless or with a straight awn from near the tip; palea as long or nearly as long as the lemma
    Distribution
    Species ± 12; temperate Europe and Asia, widely introduced elsewhere
    Note
    Some of the species will also hybridize freely with certain species of Festuca, and this has sometimes been considered an indication that the two genera should be united. The taxonomy of the genus is confused by the relative ease with which the species will hybridize and introgress
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets sessile, solitary, 3-11-flowered, usually laterally compressed, rarely subcylindrical, awned or muticous; florets hermaphrodite but the uppermost often reduced; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes 2 in the uppermost terminal spikelet, 1 (the superior) in the lateral spikelets, persistent, abaxial, 7-9-nerved, linear to oblong, chartaceous to coriaceous, not keeled, with the apex obtuse to acute, awnless.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 5-7(-9)-nerved, membranous to chartaceous, dorsally rounded, oblong with the apex subobtuse and usually shortly 2-dentate, glabrous, awnless or awned from near the apex.
    Palea
    Paleas about as long as the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, chartaceous-membranous, elliptic or oblong, apex obtuse and often minutely 2-dentate, keels crested or ciliate.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, minute, ovate-lanceolate.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, obovate-truncate, styles distinct, rather short, plumose for the whole length.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic-oblong to linear-oblong in outline, dorsally with a longitudinal groove, ventrally sulcate, with a short apical appendage; hilum linear.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials of various habitats.
    Ligules
    Ligule a hyaline membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary terminal spike, with the spikelets arranged in 2 ranks on opposite sides of the rhachis and inserted alternatively in depressions edgewise to it.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms 30-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 6-17 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis semiterete. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid.
    Distribution
    Europe.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritania, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Florida, Free State, Galápagos, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Malaya, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Georgia, St.Helena, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

    Lolium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 36 (1754).5
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 83 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Terrell, U.S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bull. 1392 (1968)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 36 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0