1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Loxodera Launert

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary raceme; raceme dorsally flattened, tardily disarticulating, stout; internodes narrowly oblong to clavate, pubescent to pilose, the top crateriform with a lobed scarious rim
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong; callus oblique, broadly obtuse, bearded, inserted into the top of the internode, the hairs exserted to form a ring around each node; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, the margins sharply inflexed and becoming keeled towards the tip, at most ciliolate near the apex, usually with the nerves raised into longitudinal ridges, sometimes muricate on the sides, entire at the tip; upper glume awnless; lower floret ♂; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet about as long as the sessile or much reduced, awnless or rarely awned. Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong; callus oblique, broadly obtuse, bearded, inserted into the top of the internode, the hairs exserted to form a ring around each node; lower glume coriaceous, broadly convex, the margins sharply inflexed and becoming keeled towards the tip, at most ciliolate near the apex, usually with the nerves raised into longitudinal ridges, sometimes muricate on the sides, entire at the tip; upper glume awnless; lower floret ♂; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet about as long as the sessile or much reduced, awnless or rarely awned.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (4), or short (1). Culms erect; 30-76-150 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (2/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle widened at apex (1/1). Racemes single; erect (1), or ascending (4). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete. Rhachis internodes columnar (2), or oblong (2), or clavate (1), or cuneate (2). Rhachis internode tip crateriform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear (2), or oblong (3).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (1), or well-developed (4); persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (1). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); dorsally compressed; 5-7.324-9.6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (2), or cuneate (3); bearded; base truncate (2), or obtuse (3); inserted.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (1), or well-developed (4); persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); dorsally compressed; 5-7.324-9.6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (2), or cuneate (3); bearded; base truncate (2), or obtuse (3); inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (4); without keels; 5 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (4), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume surface smooth (3), or muricate (2); glabrous (4), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex acute; muticous, or mucronate (1). Upper glume elliptic; chartaceous; 3 -veined (3/3). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (4), or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (1), or obovate (1); hyaline (2), or membranous (3); 3 -veined (3/3); obtuse (3/3). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); hyaline; 2 -veined (1/3), or 3 -veined (2/3). Lemma margins eciliate (4), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (2/2); without ornament (4), or pubescent (1). Palea hyaline.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (2/2).
    Distribution
    Africa.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous; leaf laminas flat or folded.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary raceme; raceme ± dorsally flattened, tardily disarticulating, stout; internodes narrowly oblong to clavate, pubescent to pilose, the summit crateriform with a lobed scarious rim.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong; callus oblique, broadly obtuse, conspicuously barbate, inserted into the summit of the internode, the hairs exserted to form a ring around each node; inferior glume coriaceous, broadly convex, the margins sharply inflexed and becoming keeled towards the apex, usually with the nerves raised into longitudinal ridges running the whole length of the glume, sometimes muricate on the sides, entire at the apex; superior glume awnless; inferior floret male; superior lemma entire and awnless. Pedicelled spikelet about as long as the sessile spikelet or much reduced, awnless or rarely awned from the inferior glume.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Loxodera Launert appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 37: 80 (1963)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Senck. Biol. 46: 121 (1965).
    • in Bol. Soc. Brot. 37: 80 (1963)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 20: 258 (1966).
    • in Senckenberg. Biol. 46: 121 (1965).
    • in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 37: 80 (1963)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B. 20: 258 (1966)
    • in Senck. Biol. 46: 121 (1965)
    • in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér 2, 37: 80 (1963)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0