1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Paspalum L.
      1. Paspalum plicatulum Michx.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 30-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 15-30 cm long; 2-7 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-7; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-15 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 3-15 cm long. Rhachis wingless; angular; 1 mm wide. Spikelet packing irregular; 2-4 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; obtuse; 2.3-3.2 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; obtuse; 2.3-3.2 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; thicker on margins; 5 -veined; wrinkled; glabrous, or puberulous; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; indurate; dark brown; without keel. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China. Asia-tropical: Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Gr Bahia.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Culms 80-100 cm long. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pilose; with tubercle-based hairs; inner surface glabrous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-1.2 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 18-49 cm long; 1-5 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 9-13; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 5.5-7.5 cm long. Rhachis 1 mm wide; scabrous on margins. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; subacute; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.1-2 mm wide; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; subacute; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.1-2 mm wide; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume obovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret obovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; wrinkled; glabrous. Fertile lemma obovate; 2.5-3 mm long; 1.1-2 mm wide; indurate; dark brown; without keel. Lemma surface papillose. Lemma margins involute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    South America: Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fl Sao Paulo 2001.
    Diagnostic
    Lower racemes longer, the inflorescence pyramidal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., China North-Central, Equatorial Guinea, India, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Paspalum plicatulum Michx. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1981 Heringer, E.P. [6107], Brazil K000983362
    Jan 1, 1973 Smith, L.B. [15755], Brazil K000983357
    Jan 17, 1965 Smith, L.B. [14685], Brazil K000983791
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4096], Brazil K000983340
    Jan 1, 1962 Eiten, G. [2674], Brazil K000983801
    Hinton, G.B. [9282], Guerrero K000476161
    Hinton, G.B. [4005], México State K000476163
    Hinton, G.B. [9434], Guerrero K000476162
    Clayton, W.D. [446], Brazil K000983325
    Clayton, W.D. [4447], Brazil K000983326
    Clayton, W.D. [4444], Brazil K000983327
    Clayton, W.D. [4132], Brazil K000983806
    Clayton, W.D. [4155], Brazil K000983807
    Clayton, W.D. [4156], Brazil K000983805
    Clayton, W.D. [4299], Brazil K000983794
    Clayton, W.D. [4550], Brazil K000983803
    Clayton, W.D. [4501], Brazil K000983804
    Clayton, W.D. [4503], Brazil K000983808
    Hatschbach, G. [51775], Brazil K000983360
    Hatschbach, G. [12184], Brazil K000983795
    Hatschbach, G. [12435], Brazil K000983796
    Hatschbach, G. [15400], Brazil K000983797
    Edwards, P.J. [2519], Brazil K000983358
    Swallen, J.R. [7790], Rio Grande do Sul K000643800 Unknown type material
    Liebmann [182], Mexico K000643614
    Smith, L.B. [14363], Brazil K000983349
    Smith, L.B. [13775], Brazil K000983350
    Smith, L.B. [14600], Brazil K000983793
    Riedel [2148], Brazil K000983324
    Riedel [28], Brazil K000983353
    Riedel [295], Brazil K000983354
    Bourgeau, M. [2633], Mexico K000643613
    Bourgeau, M. [2633], Mexico K000643615
    Fox [329], Brazil K000983322
    Hoehne, W. [3031], Brazil K000983799
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000983345
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000983346
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000983348
    Quarín, C. [4024], Brazil K000983361
    Rambo, B. [43975], Brazil K000983351
    Rambo, B. [43975], Brazil K000983352
    Mimura, I. [354 A], Brazil K000983802
    Husnot [76], Guadeloupe K000643590
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1565], Brazil K000983341
    Dombrowski, L.T. [5551], Brazil K000983359
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2286], Brazil K000983792
    Glaziou, A. [22590], Brazil K000983335
    Skvortzov, B. [202], Brazil K000983800
    Gardner [4141], Brazil K000983337
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000983343
    Burchell [4401], Brazil K000983323
    Glaziou [22591], Brazil K000983338
    Glaziou [22590], Brazil K000983339
    Davidson, D. [1966], Brazil K000983798
    Nov 1, 2013 Harley, R.M. [24703], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983413
    Nov 1, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4849], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983408
    Nov 1, 2013 Lewis, G.P. [1582], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983407
    Nov 1, 2013 Anderson, W.R. [6429], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983409
    Nov 1, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [49304], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983412
    Nov 1, 2013 Gardner [3500], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983410
    Nov 1, 2013 Bromer, D.F.R. [2], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983411
    Jan 1, 2013 Irwin, H.S. [24588], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983419
    Jan 1, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [23832], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983417
    Jan 1, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [29579], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983418
    Ule, E. [8038], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983367
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [22592], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983416
    Hatschbach, G.G. [60428], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983414
    Hatschbach, G.G. [60428], Brazil Paspalum lenticulare K000983415
    Hassler, E. [9172], Paraguay Paspalum plicatulum var. longipilum K000643799 Unknown type material
    Glaziou, A. [15614], Brazil Paspalum plicatulum var. longipilum K000983355
    Glaziou [16563], Brazil Paspalum plicatulum var. longipilum K000983356
    Nov 1, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4221], Brazil Paspalum ramosum K000983406
    Nov 1, 2013 Smith, L.B. [15634], Brazil Paspalum ramosum K000983405
    Nov 1, 2013 Dombrowski, L. [9454], Brazil Paspalum ramosum K000983404

    First published in Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 45 (1803)

    Accepted by

    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0