1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Paspalum L.
      1. Paspalum vaginatum Sw.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Stoloniferous perennial, extensively creeping; culms 8–60 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 2.5–15 cm. long, 3–8 mm. wide, stiffly ascending.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 2(–5) conjugate racemes, each raceme 1.5–7.5 cm. long, the spikelets borne singly in 2 rows on a winged rhachis 1–2 mm. wide.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly ovate-elliptic, 3–4.5 mm. long, markedly flattened, usually pale brownish green; lower glume very rarely present as a tiny scale; upper glume and lower lemma as long as the spikelet, thinly papery, glabrous, the midnerve commonly suppressed; upper lemma smooth, pallid at maturity.
    Habitat
    Coastal salt marshes, but sometimes also in inland marshes; 0–1000 m.
    Distribution
    throughout the tropics, extending into subtropical regions K4 K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Creeping stoloniferous perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 8–60 cm. high.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes paired (rarely up to 5), each 1.5–7.5 cm. long, the spikelets borne singly in 2 rows on a rhachis 1–2 mm. wide.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–4.5 mm. long, narrowly ovate-elliptic, markedly flattened, usually pale brownish green.
    Glume
    Inferior glume very rarely present as a tiny scale. Superior glume thinly papery, glabrous.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma thinly papery. Superior lemma pallid at maturity.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A stoloniferous creeping grass 30–60 cm. high
    Ecology
    Seashores, near the beach or on tidal flats.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 8-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 2.5-15 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2(-5); paired, or digitate; unilateral; 1.5-7.5 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; 1-2 mm wide. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acute; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; plano-convex; acute; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure, or two (rarely); reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume when present ovate; 0.1-0.2 length of spikelet; hyaline; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 2-3 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 2-3 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Europe: southwestern and southeastern. Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, France, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Oman, Philippines, Portugal, Réunion, Samoa, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zaïre

    Paspalum vaginatum Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2014 Dusén, P. [13465], Brazil K001059065
    Feb 1, 2014 Hatschbach, G.G. [14095], Brazil K001059061
    Feb 1, 2014 Lützelburg, P. [26], Brazil K001059070
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1433], Brazil K001059060
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [6730], Thailand K000621071
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [6765], Thailand K000621072
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [11243], Thailand K000621073
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [11243], Thailand K000621074
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [15611], Thailand K000621075
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [16099], Thailand K000621076
    Sep 1, 1989 Kerr, A.F.G. [17585], Thailand K000621077
    Sep 1, 1989 Sorensen, Th. [105], Thailand K000688181
    Sep 1, 1989 Larsen, K. [1233], Thailand K000688182
    Sep 1, 1989 Lazarides, M. [7438], Thailand K000688183
    Sep 1, 1989 Lazarides, M. [7438], Thailand K000688184
    May 1, 1984 Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000215127
    May 1, 1984 Brown, R. [6091], Australia K000215126 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1984 Brown, R. [6091], Australia K000215125 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1984 Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000215128
    Maitland, T.D. [8], Cameroon K000022776
    Maitland, T.D. [0sn.142], Cameroon K000022777
    Clayton, W.D. [4764], Brazil K001059067
    Clayton, W.D. [4685], Brazil K001059068
    Clayton, W.D. [4697], Brazil K001059069
    Clayton, W.D. [4721], Brazil K001059072
    Clayton, W.D. [4703], Brazil K001059073
    s.coll. [20], Bahamas K000643596
    Chamisso [s.n.], Brazil K001059064
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000004171 Unknown type material
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000004172 Unknown type material
    Eiten, G. [7908], Brazil K001059066
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [4346], Brazil K000643681
    Gardner, G. [6103], Brazil K001059071
    Gardner, G. [5650], Brazil K001059077
    Gardner, G. [1187], Brazil K001059063
    Cunningham, A., New Zealand K000215241
    Riedel [968], Brazil K001059075
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001059081
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001059086
    Burchell, W.J. [1565], Brazil K001059078
    Burchell, W.J. [3456], Brazil K001059083
    Burchell, W.J. [1565], Brazil K001059084
    Munro [s.n.], Brazil K001059074
    Curtiss, A.H. [751], Cuba K000643595
    [Sieber] [20], Bahamas K000643597
    Araújo, D. [1369], Brazil K001059062
    [Balbis] [s.n.], Bahamas K000643598
    Cuming, H. [1055], Peru K001059079
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [3144], Brazil K001059076
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [20122], Brazil K001059082
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [3144], Brazil K001059085
    Lange, J.M.C. [17], Spain K000885802 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000885803
    Casari, M.B. [562], Brazil K001059059
    Brunt, M.A. [1042], Cameroon K000022774
    Chuml, H. [CDC 249 (HC)], Cameroon K000022775
    Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [C2/191/2a part], Brazil K001059080

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 21 (1788)

    Accepted by

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    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Verloove, F. (2013). New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalised and (potentially) invasive species Collectanea Botanica 32: 59-82.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain) Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
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    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 399.
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 2: 561
    • A. Chev.in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 889
    • F.T.A. 9: 570
    • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21 (1788)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain) Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0