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  1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bidens L.
      1. Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Annual herb, erect, 0.1–2 m high; stem reddish tinged, 4-angled, simple or branched, pubescent or glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or rarely alternate near the apex, broadly ovate in outline, pinnately (3–)5–9-lobed or almost pinnatisect, 3–20 cm long, 2.5–12 cm wide, leaf segments ovate to lanceolate, lobed or bilobed at base, margins crenate-serrate to almost lobulate, apices acute; petiole to 60 mm long.
    Capitulum
    Capitula in terminal lax paniculate cymes; involucre cup-shaped; outer phyllaries 4–8(–15), linear to oblanceolate, 4–6(–12) mm long, to 20 mm long in fruit, pubescent, inner phyllaries 8–11, yellowish green, with paler margins, 3.5–7 mm long, pubescent; paleae 4.5–6 mm long.
    Florets
    Ray florets yellow, rarely orange, neuter or with staminodes, (1–)2–5, tube 0.8–1.3 mm long, pubescent, rays 3–6x1.3–2.5 mm, striate; disc florets yellow to orange-yellow, 3–3.7 mm long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Achenes black, 4–8-ribbed, linear-tetragonal, 6–16(–25) mm long, strigose in upper half; aristae (2–)3–4(–5), yellow-brown, 2–4 mm long, retrorsely barbed.
    Figures
    Fig. 172 (page 805).
    Habitat
    orest margins, weed of cultivation (especially in maize), ruderal sites, woodland, evergreen bushland, river-banks, grassland; 50–2500 m
    Distribution
    widespread in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Australia K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An annual weedy herb
    Flowers
    Yellow flowers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesotho, Manchuria, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cape Verde, Fiji, France, Great Britain, Madeira, Réunion

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Black jack

    Other Data

    Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 7, 2008 Crawford, F. [203], Namibia K000450308
    Schimper [337], Ethiopia K000410583 isolectotype
    Schimper [337], Ethiopia K000410582 isolectotype
    Schimper [337], Ethiopia K000410584 isolectotype
    Schimper [1427], Ethiopia K000410585
    Schimper, W. [2181], Ethiopia K000410581 isolectotype
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3188], Nepal Bidens decomposita K001118745
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3188] Bidens decomposita K001118746
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3188], India Bidens decomposita K001118747
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3188], Bangladesh Bidens decomposita K001118748
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3189], Myanmar Bidens chinensis K001118753
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 3189], Myanmar Bidens chinensis K001118754
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3189] Bidens chinensis K001118749
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3189], India Bidens chinensis K001118750
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3189] Bidens chinensis K001118751
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3189], India Bidens chinensis K001118752

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Gaz. 88: 293 (1929)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Sherff in Publ. Field Mus. 16: 388, t. 99.
    • in Bot. Gaz. 88: 293 (1929)
    • B. bipinnata of Chev. Bot. 373, partly (Chev. 21959), not of Linn.
    • Coreopsis biternata Lour. (1780)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 217, t. 89 (1994).
    • D.J.N. Hind in Fl. Masc. 109: 195, t. 66 (1993).
    • Mesfin in Kew Bulletin 48: 498 (1993).
    • Lisowski, Asterac. Fl. Afr. Centr. 1: 135 (1991).
    • Maquet in Fl. Rwanda 3: 633 (1985).
    • Mesfin in Symb. Bot. Upsal. 24: 115, fig. 58 (1984).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 466 (1974).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg.) p. 1135 (1967).
    • Wild in Kirkia 6: 26 (1967).
    • C.D. Adams in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 2: 234 (1963).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 12 (1956).
    • Sherff in Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 16: 388, fig. 99/a, c–m (1937).
    • Merr. & Sherff in Bot. Gaz. 88: 293 (1929).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/