1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Melinis P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5/21), or perennial (17/21). Culms erect (6), or geniculately ascending (8), or decumbent (10), or rambling (2); slender (4/4); 10.64-61.69-150 cm long; firm (19), or wiry (3); rooting from lower nodes (5/5). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches ample (2/2). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (19), or lanceolate (2); stiff (1), or firm (21); without exudate (18), or viscid (4); without scent (21), or aromatic (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (21), or composed of racemes (1); exserted (21), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (19/21), or contracted (2/21). Racemes borne along a central axis (1/1); unilateral (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (21). Pedicels filiform (5/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (19), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (11); 1-3.2-12 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated between glumes (7), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (19), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (11); 1-3.2-12 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated between glumes (7), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (6), or two (16); reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong (14/16), or ovate (4/16); hyaline (7/16), or membranous (9/16); without keels (16/16); 0 -veined (14/16), or 1 -veined (10/16). Lower glume lateral veins absent (16/16). Lower glume surface glabrous (10/16), or pubescent (3/16), or pilose (4/16), or villous (2/16). Lower glume apex emarginate (6/16), or truncate (6/16), or obtuse (8/16), or acute (2/16). Upper glume elliptic (2), or oblong (19), or ovate (1); not gibbous (11), or gibbous (11); membranous (11), or chartaceous (7), or coriaceous (4); without keels; 5 -veined (12), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (12), or 9 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (21), or ribbed (2). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (1); glabrous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (7), or villous (3); with simple hairs (17/18), or tubercle-based hairs (1/18); without hair tufts (20), or with a dorsal tuft of hair (3), or with transverse tufts of hair (1). Upper glume apex entire (8), or lobed (14); 2 -fid (14/14); emarginate (7/14), or truncate (1/14), or obtuse (5/14), or acute (1/14), or rostrate (3/14); muticous (7), or mucronate (8), or awned (15); 1 -awned (15/15).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (13), or barren (10); with palea (17), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (1), or oblong (20), or ovate (1); membranous (11), or chartaceous (8), or coriaceous (3); 3 -veined (3), or 4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (18), or 6 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (4), or 8-9 -veined (1); without ribs (21), or ribbed (1); emarginate (8/15), or obtuse (4/15), or acute (1/15), or rostrate (2/15); muticous (10), or mucronate (7), or awned (16). Palea of lower sterile floret wingless (16/17), or winged on keels (1/17). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or oblong (10), or ovate (12); laterally compressed; cartilaginous; without keel; 1-2 -veined (1/21), or 3 -veined (9/21), or 4 -veined (3/21), or 5 -veined (15/21). Lemma margins eciliate (20), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (21), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (2/6), or truncate (1/6), or obtuse (2/6), or acute (2/6); muticous (21), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (1/1). Palea 0.8-1.055-1.5 length of lemma; cartilaginous; without keels. Palea surface glabrous (21), or pilose (1).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (9/9).
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (2).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets laterally compressed.
    Glume
    Inferior glume small or suppressed; superior glume and inferior lemma as long as spikelet, membranous to coriaceous, sometimes gibbous, emarginate to bilobed, sometimes awned.
    Florets
    Superior floret laterally compressed, readily deciduous, its lemma membranous to thinly cartilaginous.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with capillary branches
    Spikelets
    Spikelets symmetrical in profile, slightly laterally compressed, glabrous or hairy; lower glume small or suppressed, never distant from the upper; upper glume as long as the spikelet, membranous to chartaceous, not becoming thinner at the tip (except M. ambigua), 7-nerved (except M. tenuissima), usually straight on the back, emarginate to bilobed, sometimes awned from the sinus; lower floret usually sterile, its lemma narrower than the upper glume and usually awned, the palea commonly absent (when present its keels usually scaberulous); upper lemma smaller than the lower, often deciduous before the rest of the spikelet, thinly cartilaginous, smooth, laterally compressed, its margins flat and ± enfolding the palea, acute
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or filiform; ligule a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with capillary branches (very rarely the primary branches raceme-like)
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ± asymmetrical in profile, laterally compressed, often silky hairy; lower glume small, sometimes distant from the upper; upper glume as long as the spikelet, firmly membranous to subcoriaceous, becoming thinner towards the tip, 5-nerved, ± gibbous below the middle and sometimes tapering to a beak above, emarginate to bilobed (rarely entire), often awned from the sinus; lower floret usually ♂, its lemma resembling the upper glume or somewhat narrower and less gibbous, the palea present (except R. scabridum) and usually ciliate on the margins; upper lemma smaller than the lower, often deciduous before the rest of the spikelet, cartilaginous, smooth, laterally compressed, its margins flat and ± enfolding the palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong-ellipsoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is.

    Melinis P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 54 (1812)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 916 (1930).
    • Ess. Agrost. 54 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Zizka in Bibl Bot. 138: 50–133 (1988).
    • Ess. Agrost.: 54 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 54 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0