1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Merostachys Spreng.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (44); pachymorph (44/44). Culms erect (25/34), or arching (3/34), or leaning (3/34), or scandent (4/34); 150-960.5-3000 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/9), or swollen (8/9); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/4), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (3/4). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement three (1/44), or several (3/44), or many (41/44); flabellate; with subequal branches (6/6); thinner than stem (21/21). Culm-sheaths tardily deciduous (1/27), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/27), or deciduous (25/27); auriculate (3/3). Culm-sheath blade linear (4/21), or lanceolate (17/21); constricted at base (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (41), or erect (3), or falcate (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (2), or a ciliolate membrane (42), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades linear (3), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (1), or oblong (15), or ovate (11). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (2/2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (39), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (5).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes (39/39); exserted (33/39), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (7/39). Peduncle cylindrical at apex (1/1), or tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Racemes single (39/39); unilateral (39/39); bearing 1-17-32 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis angular (15/15); terminating in a spikelet (1/39), or sterile spikelet (38/39). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (39/39); crowded (3/39), or contiguous (32/39), or lax (3/39), or distant (1/39); 2 -rowed (7/7). Spikelets appressed (1/29), or spreading (3/29), or pectinate (24/29), or deflexed (2/29); solitary (34/37), or in pairs (4/37), or in threes (1/37). Fertile spikelets sessile (13/39), or pedicelled (26/39); 1 in the cluster (1/2), or 2 in the cluster (2/2), or 3 in the cluster (1/2); the upper smaller (1/1). Pedicels free (25/26), or fused to each other (1/26); oblong (9/9).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (9/10), or 2 basal sterile florets (1/10); 1 fertile florets (36/39), or 2 fertile florets (5/39), or 3-4 fertile florets (1/39), or 5 fertile florets (2/39), or 6-10 fertile florets (1/39); with a barren rhachilla extension (20/39), or with diminished florets at the apex (21/39). Spikelets lanceolate (13/39), or elliptic (23/39), or oblong (1/39), or ovate (2/39), or cuneate (1/39); laterally compressed (39/39); 4-13.93-55 mm long; breaking up at maturity (39/39); disarticulating below each fertile floret (39/39). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (38/39), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/39); glabrous (6/7), or pubescent (1/7). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (9/10), or 2 basal sterile florets (1/10); 1 fertile florets (36/39), or 2 fertile florets (5/39), or 3-4 fertile florets (1/39), or 5 fertile florets (2/39), or 6-10 fertile florets (1/39); with a barren rhachilla extension (20/39), or with diminished florets at the apex (21/39). Spikelets lanceolate (13/39), or elliptic (23/39), or oblong (1/39), or ovate (2/39), or cuneate (1/39); laterally compressed (39/39); 4-13.93-55 mm long; breaking up at maturity (39/39); disarticulating below each fertile floret (39/39). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (38/39), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/39); glabrous (6/7), or pubescent (1/7). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (9/39), or two (31/39); persistent (39/39); shorter than spikelet (34/39), or reaching apex of florets (4/39), or exceeding apex of florets (1/39). Lower glume linear (3/31), or lanceolate (15/31), or elliptic (3/31), or ovate (11/31); clasping (1/1); 0.25-0.386-0.5 length of upper glume; membranous (10/26), or chartaceous (16/26); without keels (9/22), or 1-keeled (13/22); 0 -veined (1/25), or 1 -veined (21/25), or 3 -veined (1/25), or 5 -veined (1/25), or 9-11 -veined (1/25). Lower glume lateral veins absent (21/31), or distinct (9/31), or prominent (1/31). Lower glume surface glabrous (17/31), or puberulous (11/31), or pubescent (3/31). Lower glume apex acute (12/29), or acuminate (14/29), or attenuate (2/29), or setaceously attenuate (2/29); muticous (29/31), or mucronate (1/31), or awned (1/31). Upper glume lanceolate (12/39), or elliptic (5/39), or oblong (1/39), or ovate (20/39), or orbicular (1/39); 0.01-0.655-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (13/39), or chartaceous (26/39); without keels (4/9), or 1-keeled (5/9); 0-9-17 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (37/38), or pubescent (1/38). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (35/36), or ribbed (1/36); transversely connected at apex (3/6), or with cross-veins (3/6). Upper glume surface smooth (33/39), or asperulous (3/39), or scabrous (3/39); glabrous (25/39), or puberulous (9/39), or pubescent (4/39), or hispid (1/39). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/38), or acute (19/38), or acuminate (14/38), or attenuate (2/38), or setaceously attenuate (1/38), or caudate (1/38); muticous (27/39), or mucronate (4/39), or awned (8/39); 1 -awned (8/8).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (10/10); without significant palea (10/10). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (3/10), or oblong (1/10), or ovate (7/10); 0.5-0.75-1 length of fertile lemma; chartaceous (4/4); 5 -veined (1/5), or 7 -veined (3/5), or 15-17 -veined (1/5); without grooves (8/10), or sulcate (2/10); obtuse (2/9), or acute (5/9), or acuminate (2/9); muticous (7/10), or mucronate (3/10). Fertile lemma linear (1/39), or lanceolate (13/39), or elliptic (3/39), or oblong (5/39), or ovate (21/39); chartaceous (33/39), or cartilaginous (1/39), or coriaceous (5/39); without keel (37/39), or keeled (2/39); 5-14-23 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (34/39), or granulose (1/39), or scaberulous (4/39); glabrous (13/39), or puberulous (13/39), or pubescent (13/39), or pilose (1/39). Lemma margins eciliate (26/39), or ciliolate (3/39), or ciliate (8/39), or pubescent (1/39), or woolly (1/39). Lemma apex acute (26/31), or acuminate (5/31); muticous (35/39), or mucronate (3/39), or awned (1/39); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1-1.004-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (12/39), or chartaceous (24/39), or cartilaginous (1/39), or coriaceous (2/39); 2 -veined (3/17), or 6 -veined (1/17), or 8 -veined (3/17), or 9 -veined (1/17), or 10 -veined (4/17), or 11 -veined (3/17), or 12 -veined (7/17), or 13-14 -veined (2/17). Palea keels separated (14/39), or approximate (1/39), or contiguous above a sulcus (24/39); smooth (37/39), or scaberulous (2/39); eciliate (25/39), or ciliolate (12/39), or ciliate (1/39), or woolly (1/39). Palea surface glabrous (32/39), or puberulous (4/39), or pilose (2/39), or woolly (1/39). Palea apex muticous (38/39), or with excurrent keel veins (1/39). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (1/21), or distinct from fertile (20/21); 1 in number (20/20); rudimentary (19/20), or linear (1/20).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (39/39); glabrous (31/39), or ciliate (8/39). Anthers 3 (39/39). Stigmas 2 (38/39), or 3 (1/39). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (35/35); ellipsoid (2/11), or oblong (3/11), or ovoid (6/11); smooth (2/3), or striate (1/3); apex unappendaged (1/3), or rostrate (2/3). Embryo 0.1 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (2/2).
    Distribution
    South America.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela

    Merostachys Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2003 Amorim, M. [537], Brazil K001212878
    McClure, F.A. [21287], Brazil K001212565
    McClure, F.A. [21287], Brazil K001212566
    McClure, F.A. [21294], Brazil K001212600
    McClure, F.A. [21294], Brazil K001212603
    McClure, F.A. [21294], Brazil K001212604
    Krapovickas, A. [40058], Paraguay K001212622
    Krapovickas, A. [40058], Paraguay K001212623
    Martinelli, G. [11954], Brazil K001212587
    Carvalho, A.M. [4366], Brazil K001212876
    Carvalho, A.M. [4380], Brazil K001212877
    Amorim, A.M. [537], Brazil K001212611
    Amorim, A.M. [537], Brazil K001212612
    Amorim, A.M. [537], Brazil K001212879
    Ule, E. [5602], Brazil K001212624
    Heringer, E.P. [6867], Brazil K001075239
    Calderon, C.E. [2384], Brazil K001212570
    Calderon, C.E. [2435], Brazil K001212571
    Calderon, C.E. [2782], Brazil K001212572
    Calderon, C.E. [2782], Brazil K001212573
    Calderon, C.E. [2874], Brazil K001212574
    Calderon, C.E. [2874], Brazil K001212575
    Calderon, C.E. [2384], Brazil K001212576
    Calderon, C.E. [2257], Brazil K001212577
    Calderon, C.E. [2257], Brazil K001212578
    Calderon, C.E. [2257], Brazil K001212579
    Calderon, C.E. [2257], Brazil K001212580
    Calderon, C.E. [2190], Brazil K001212581
    Calderon, C.E. [2190], Brazil K001212582
    Calderon, C.E. [2232], Brazil K001212583
    Calderon, C.E. [2232], Brazil K001212584
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212588
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212589
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212590
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212591
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212592
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212593
    Calderon, C.E. [2519], Brazil K001212594
    Calderon, C.E. [2333], Brazil K001212620
    Davidse, G. [11419], Brazil K001212585
    Davidse, G. [11419], Brazil K001212586
    Soderstrom, T.R. [2129], Brazil K001212554
    Soderstrom, T.R. [2154], Brazil K001212555
    Soderstrom, T.R. [2154], Brazil K001212556
    Soderstrom, T.R. [2219], Brazil K001212557
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1176], Brazil K001212558
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1178], Brazil K001212559
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1178], Brazil K001212560
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1864], Brazil K001212561
    Castellanos, A. [24019], Brazil K001212627
    Clark, L. [678], Brazil K001212562
    Clark, L. [813], Brazil K001212564
    Clark, L. [639], Brazil K001212595
    Clark, L. [646], Brazil K001212596
    Clark, L. [646], Brazil K001212597
    Clark, L. [615], Brazil K001212598
    Clark, L. [643], Brazil K001212599
    Clark, L. [816], Brazil K001212601
    Clark, L. [641], Brazil K001212602
    Clark, L. [638], Brazil K001212605
    Clark, L. [620], Brazil K001212606
    Clark, L. [651], Brazil K001212607
    Clark, L. [722], Brazil K001212608
    Clark, L. [750], Brazil K001212609
    Clark, L. [763], Brazil K001212610
    Clark, L. [776], Brazil K001212618
    Clark, L. [687], Brazil K001212621
    Maas, P.J.M. [3287], Brazil K001212563
    Filgueiras, T.S. [839], Brazil K001075238
    Folli, D.A. [2517], Brazil K001212619
    Dusén, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001212626
    Forzza, R.C. [2908], Brazil K001212567
    Zuloaga, F.O. [2471], Brazil K001212568
    Zuloaga, F.O. [2471], Brazil K001212569
    Sant´Ana, S.C. [41], Brazil K001212613
    Vieira, M.C.W. [1356], Brazil K001212616
    Vieira, M.C.W. [1356], Brazil K001212617
    Valls, J. [2616], Brazil K001212614
    Valls, J. [2616], Brazil K001212615
    Glaziou [20148], Brazil K001212625
    Nadeaud [s.n.], Brazil K001212628

    First published in Syst. Veg. 1: 132, 249 (1824)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0