1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Microstegium Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Uganda to S. Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Rambling perennials, or sometimes annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate, narrowed at the base and often with a short false petiole; ligule short, scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, comprising up to 25 subdigitate racemes, these rarely solitary or with a short common axis; racemes fragile (very rarely tough), seldom conspicuously hairy, bearing paired spikelets, those of each pair alike; internodes and pedicels linear or rarely inflated
    Spikelets
    Spikelets dorsally compressed; callus obtuse; lower glume herbaceous to cartilaginous, the back flat with a median groove and the margins sharply inflexed, acute or notched at the tip; upper glume acute or with a short awn point; lower floret ♂, reduced to a hyaline scale, or suppressed, these variants often mixed in the same panicle; upper lemma hyaline, linear to cordate, often minute, bidentate to bifid, with a glabrous awn from the sinus; stamens 3, rarely 2; caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid to lanceolate, dorsally flattened.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (16), or perennial (10). Rhizomes absent (25), or elongated (1). Culms erect (2/24), or geniculately ascending (2/24), or decumbent (5/24), or prostrate (4/24), or rambling (12/24), or scandent (1/24); robust (3/8), or slender (4/8), or weak (1/8); 10-70.27-400 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (18/18). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (1/9), or sparse (1/9), or ample (7/9). Ligule an eciliate membrane (22), or a ciliolate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (21), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (2), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades linear (7), or lanceolate (21), or elliptic (7), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); stiff (1), or firm (19), or flaccid (6).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (5), or paired (3), or digitate (22); erect (1), or ascending (22), or spreading (4), or drooping (2). Rhachis tough (4), or fragile at the nodes (22); wingless (25), or narrowly winged (1); flattened (5/10), or angular (3/10), or semiterete (2/10). Spikelet packing contiguous (25), or lax (1). Rhachis internodes filiform (8), or linear (13), or columnar (1), or clavate (1), or cuneate (2), or pyriform (2). Rhachis internode tip cupuliform (1/1). Spikelets appressed (9/9); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or sessile and pedicelled (22), or pedicelled (2); 1 in the cluster (1), or 2 in the cluster (25); subequal (1/3), or the upper smaller (2/3). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (2/2); 1 in the cluster (2/2). Pedicels filiform (8), or linear (13), or clavate (4), or cuneate (1); tip widened (1/1).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (25), or well-developed (1). Companion sterile spikelets absent (24), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (17), or elliptic (4), or oblong (7); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (25); 1.66-4.354-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (25), or with accessory branch structures (22). Spikelet callus brief (24), or square (2); glabrous (3/19), or pubescent (6/19), or pilose (7/19), or bearded (5/19); base obtuse; attached transversely (25/25). Basal sterile spikelets absent (25), or well-developed (1). Companion sterile spikelets absent (24), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (17), or elliptic (4), or oblong (7); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (25); 1.66-4.354-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (25), or with accessory branch structures (22). Spikelet callus brief (24), or square (2); glabrous (3/19), or pubescent (6/19), or pilose (7/19), or bearded (5/19); base obtuse; attached transversely (25/25).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets (2/2); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (14), or oblong (9); chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (2), or coriaceous (22); 2-keeled; wingless (25), or winged on keel (1); 2-3 -veined (2/17), or 4 -veined (11/17), or 5 -veined (4/17), or 6-7 -veined (5/17), or 8 -veined (3/17), or 9 -veined (1/17). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (25); without ribs (25), or ribbed (1); intercarinal veins distinct (2/3), or absent below, prominent above (1/3). Lower glume surface flat (3), or concave (8), or with a longitudinal median groove (16); smooth (19), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (5); glabrous (22), or puberulous (1), or pilose (3). Lower glume apex entire (21), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (7/7); emarginate (7/19), or truncate (1/19), or obtuse (7/19), or acute (5/19), or acuminate (1/19). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (2); membranous (3/7), or chartaceous (5/7), or cartilaginous (2/7); with undifferentiated margins (25), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (3/25), or 1-keeled (24/25); 1-2 -veined (1/16), or 3 -veined (14/16), or 4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (2/16), or 6 -veined (1/16), or 7 -veined (2/16). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (22), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (3). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (25), or scabrous (1); glabrous (24), or pilose (2). Upper glume apex entire (23), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); acute (12/17), or acuminate (4/17), or attenuate (2/17); muticous (15), or mucronate (3), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (9/21), or barren (15/21); with palea (10/20), or without significant palea (10/20). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (3/17), or lanceolate (10/17), or oblong (5/17); hyaline (18/18); 0 -veined (2/3), or 1 -veined (1/3), or 3 -veined (1/3); obtuse (2/3), or acuminate (1/3); muticous (16/17), or awned (1/17). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (8/10), or membranous (2/10). Fertile lemma linear (9), or lanceolate (4), or oblong (8), or ovate (1), or orbicular (5); hyaline (25), or membranous (1); without keel; 0 -veined (11/13), or 3 -veined (2/13). Lemma surface glabrous (25), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate (23), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (6), or dentate (13), or lobed (8); 2 -fid (21/21); incised 0.25-0.4575-0.75 of lemma length; emarginate (2/5), or acuminate (3/5); muticous (2), or mucronate (1), or awned (24); 1 -awned (24/24). Principal lemma awn apical (6/25), or from a sinus (20/25); straight (2/25), or flexuous (7/25), or geniculate (16/25); attenuate (23/25), or with thread-like crinkled tip (2/25). Palea present (15), or absent or minute (11); 0.33-0.8883-1 length of lemma; hyaline (9/15), or membranous (6/15); 0 -veined (1/1); without keels (2/15), or 2-keeled (13/15). Palea surface glabrous (13/15), or pilose (2/15). Palea apex dentate (2/2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (5/5). Anthers 2 (6/22), or 3 (16/22).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (3/3); fusiform (1/2), or obovoid (1/2). Embryo 0.25-0.375-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (15), or Tropical Asia (18), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (3), or North America (1).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence of 1–many subdigitate racemes; racemes fragile, sparsely pilose, with filiform to clavate internodes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets alike (though the pedicelled sometimes a little smaller), paired, one sessile, one pedicelled, dorsally compressed, the callus obtuse.
    Glume
    Superior glume often shortly awned. Inferior glume herbaceous to cartilaginous, the back flat with a median groove, sharply inflexed on the flanks, acute to bidentate.
    Florets
    Inferior floret very variable, male, reduced to a hyaline scale or suppressed.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma linear to cordate, entire to bifid, with a glabrous awn.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Primorye, Rwanda, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Cameroon, Congo, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iran, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Virginia, West Virginia

    Microstegium Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J.Lindley, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 447 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Chen, C.H., Veldkamp, J.-F. & Kuoh, C.S. (2012). Taxonomic revision of Microstegium s.str. (Andropogoneae, Poaceae) Blumea 57: 160-189.
    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Lindley, Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 447 (1836).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Bor in Kew Bull. 7: 209–223 (1952).
    • in Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 447 (1836).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bor in K.B. 7: 209 (1952)
    • in Lindl., Nat. Syst., ed. 2: 447 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0