1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Miscanthus Andersson

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Uganda to S. Africa, Russian Far East to Tropical Asia and Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence a panicle (but subdigitate in Asia), often large and plumose, bearing numerous racemes on its branches; raceme rhachis tough with slender internodes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets alike, paired, both pedicelled, lanceolate to narrowly oblong, barbate from the callus.
    Glume
    Inferior glume thinly coriaceous, broadly convex.
    Florets
    Inferior floret represented by a hyaline lemma.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma entire or bidentate, with or without a short awn; stamens 2–3.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall tufted or rhizomatous perennials with erect culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat, sometimes falsely petiolate or the whole blade terete; ligule scarious, ciliate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence large, plumose, the central axis elongated and bearing crowded racemes on the primary branches, or very short with racemes almost digitate; raceme-rhachis not fracturing at maturity, bearing paired similar spikelets each supported on a pedicel
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly oblong to lanceolate, surrounded by an involucre of hairs from the callus; callus very short, truncate; glumes equal, as long as the spikelet, thinly coriaceous, the lower ± flattened on the back; lower floret reduced to a narrowly oblong, hyaline lemma; upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma lanceolate, hyaline, entire or finely bidentate, with or without a straight or geniculate awn; stamens 2–3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to lanceolate.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (7), or short (7), or elongated (3). Culms erect (15), or geniculately ascending (2); reed-like (1/2), or robust (1/2); 30-174.3-700 cm long; without nodal roots (1/1), or with prop roots (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (1/2), or sparse (1/2), or ample (1/2). Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (15). Leaf-blades stiff (2), or firm (14). Leaf-blade midrib widened (2/2). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (6), or composed of racemes (10). Panicle open (4/6), or contracted (1/6), or spiciform (2/6). Racemes digitate (8/10), or borne along a central axis (3/10); erect (1/10), or ascending (10/10), or drooping (3/10); bearing few fertile spikelets (2), or many spikelets (14); bearing 2-5 fertile spikelets on each (2/2). Rhachis angular (3/13), or subterete (10/13). Rhachis internodes indefinite (4), or filiform (12). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; tip cupuliform (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (14), or oblong (2), or ovate (1), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-4.811-8 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus pilose (1), or bearded (15); base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (14), or oblong (2), or ovate (1), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-4.811-8 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus pilose (1), or bearded (15); base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (8), or elliptic (2), or oblong (6); chartaceous (12), or herbaceous (1), or coriaceous (3); without keels (15), or 2-keeled (1); 0-2 -veined (1/14), or 3 -veined (6/14), or 4 -veined (3/14), or 5 -veined (7/14). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or obscure (3), or distinct (12); without ribs (14/15), or ribbed (1/15). Lower glume surface flat; smooth (15), or scabrous (2); glabrous (8), or puberulous (1), or pilose (6), or hirsute (1), or villous (3). Lower glume apex entire (11), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (7/7); emarginate (3/10), or truncate (3/10), or obtuse (1/10), or acute (1/10), or acuminate (3/10), or attenuate (1/10). Upper glume lanceolate (13), or elliptic (3); chartaceous (12/12); with undifferentiated margins (15), or membranous margins (1); without keels (12/15), or 1-keeled (3/15); 1 -veined (2/13), or 2 -veined (1/13), or 3 -veined (7/13), or 4 -veined (1/13), or 5 -veined (6/13). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (15), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth, or scabrous (1); glabrous (11), or pilose (6), or villous (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (8), or acuminate (6), or attenuate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1), or barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); hyaline; 0 -veined (5/15), or 1 -veined (7/15), or 3 -veined (3/15); obtuse (2/15), or acute (12/15), or acuminate (1/15). Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (2/14), or 1 -veined (13/14), or 2-3 -veined (1/14). Lemma surface glabrous (15), or pilose (1). Lemma margins eciliate (9), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (4). Lemma apex entire (8), or dentate (8), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (10/10); incised 0.25-0.29-0.33 of lemma length; acuminate (1/1); muticous (5), or mucronate (3), or awned (12); 1 -awned (12/12). Principal lemma awn apical (6/14), or from a sinus (9/14); straight (8/14), or geniculate (7/14). Palea present (12), or absent or minute (5); 0.2-0.4622-0.66 length of lemma; hyaline (2/12), or membranous (10/12); 0 -veined (2/2); without keels (1/12), or 2-keeled (11/12). Palea surface glabrous (11/12), or pubescent (1/12).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1); truncate (1/1). Anthers 2 (2/15), or 3 (13/15).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); lanceolate (1/3), or obovoid (2/3).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (11), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Amur, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Free State, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Primorye, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Austria, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Chile Central, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Egypt, Florida, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Italy, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Poland, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., South Carolina, Tennessee, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin

    Miscanthus Andersson appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Öfvers. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh. 12: 165 (1855)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Acad. 1855: 165 (1856).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Oefvers. Kon. Vet.-Akad. Förh. 1855: 165 (1856)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0