1. Family: Sapindaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Paullinia L.
      1. Paullinia pinnata L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Sapindaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A woody or subwoody climber with tendrils
    Flowers
    Small white flowers
    Fruits
    Scarlet capsular more or less 3-angled fruit
    Ecology
    Usually in regrowth vegetation in the forest regions, and in streamside vegetation in the savannah regions.
    [FTEA]

    Sapindaceae, Davies & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1998

    Habit
    Shrubby climber 2.5–8(–?15) m. high, with a deep brown sharply ribbed stem up to 3.8 cm. wide at base.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, 5-foliolate, (5–)15–25 cm. long, 8–20 cm. wide; petiole up to 10 cm. long, it and the rhachis winged, the wing 0.5–1.3 cm. wide; leaflets sessile or shortly stalked, ovate, elliptic or rhomboid, the terminal one 7–15 cm. long, 3.5–8 cm. wide, the laterals 3.5–10 cm. long, 1.7–5 cm. wide, acuminate, acute or obtuse at the apex, cordate, cuneate or narrowed at the base, subentire (rarely in our area), distantly dentate, serrate or shallowly lobed, subcoriaceous, glabrous, shining, with hairs present beneath on the venation and in tufts in the nerve axils; lateral nerves strong.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a racemoid thyrse axillary in each of the upper leaves, 5–10 cm. long; peduncle 1–3×the length of the fertile portion, with apical pair of tightly coiled tendrils, or occasionally inflorescence sessile; inflorescence-axes brown-puberulent; pedicels 0–3 mm. long; flowers (3–)5–9 in cymose clusters, the terminal one often female and the remainder male.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish, creamy white or pink, scented, 5–6 mm. long; sepals ovate, unequal, outermost 1.5 mm. long, innermost 4 mm. long, pubescent on their outer surfaces; petals white, tongue-shaped, subequal, 5 mm. long, scale asymmetrically crested, ciliate, 3/4 of the length of the petal, yellow-tipped; disk to one side of the androgynophore, ciliate, consisting mainly of 2 large, plus 2 minute, ear-shaped glands.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8, 5 long and 3 short; anthers white; staminodes 8.
    Pistil
    Ovary pubescent; style trifid; rudimentary ovary much reduced.
    Fruits
    Fruit green, turning red or rose-red, obovoid or obovoid-oblong, 2.4–3.6 cm. long, 1.1–1.4 cm. wide, rounded or emarginate at the apex, mucronate, strongly narrowed at the base, 3-grooved, at first pubescent but later glabrous and finely rugulose, ultimately dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, oblong-ellipsoid, 1–1.1 cm. long, 7–8 mm. wide; aril white.
    Figures
    Fig. 26.
    Habitat
    Forest margins, gallery forest, moist thicket and scrub; 0–1600 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2 throughout tropical Africa, Madagascar, tropical and subtropical America
    [FZ]

    Sapindaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Liane or scandent shrub; branchlets pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 30 cm. long (usually c. 12 cm.); stipules 4–5 × 1–1·5 mm., narrowly triangular, pubescent; petiole up to 10 cm. long, winged, pubescent; rhachis with wing up to 8 mm. broad; petiolules 1–3 mm. long, pubescent; leaflet-lamina up to 16 × 9 cm., ovate or elliptic or obovate, pubescent or pilose on the nerves but otherwise nearly glabrous, apex usually acuminate, margin dentate to subentire, base cuneate; lateral nerves 7–9 pairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary paniculate thyrse, floriferous portion usually c. 5 cm. long, tendrils c. 2 cm. long when coiled (sometimes absent); peduncle up to 11 cm. long (occasionally very short), minutely pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers white; pedicels up to 4 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals 1·5–3 mm. long, the larger ones elliptic, the smaller ones subcircular.
    Corolla
    Petals 4 × 2 mm., narrowly obovate, unguiculate, with a large ciliate scale attached to the claw.
    Androecium
    Stamens unequal; filaments 2–4 mm. long, pilose.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3-gonous, shortly stipitate, appressed-pubescent; style 3 mm. long; pistillode 1 mm. long in male flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit up to 28 × 12 mm., narrowly obconic, 3-gonous, apiculate, shortly stipitate, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seed blackish, 12–15 × 6–8 mm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Gulf of Guinea Is.

    Paullinia pinnata L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [1850], Cameroon K000510918
    Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [96], Cameroon K000339710
    Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [152], Cameroon K000339712
    Jun 1, 2006 Darbyshire, I. [182], Cameroon K000339709
    Jun 1, 2006 Nana felicite [34], Cameroon K000339711
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9025], Cameroon K000197925
    Nov 1, 2003 Cable, S. [2883], Cameroon K000197931
    Nov 1, 2003 Kenfack, D. [311], Cameroon K000197926
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1642], Cameroon K000197930
    Nov 1, 2003 Zapfack, L. [639], Cameroon K000197937
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [74], Cameroon K000197923
    Nov 1, 2003 Gosline, G. [97], Cameroon K000197924
    Oct 1, 2002 Lane, P. [300], Cameroon K000197936
    Oct 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [205], Cameroon K000197932
    Oct 1, 2002 Zapfack, L. [938], Cameroon K000197935
    Oct 1, 2002 Balding, S. [24], Cameroon K000197933
    Oct 1, 2002 Biye, E. [71], Cameroon K000197934
    Aug 1, 2002 Cable, S. [712], Cameroon K000197928
    Aug 1, 2002 Kenfack, D. [217], Cameroon K000197929
    May 1, 2000 Fokom, I. [173], Cameroon K000337730
    Jan 1, 1997 Thomas, D.W. [10035], Cameroon K000011008
    Jan 1, 1997 Akogo, M. [193], Cameroon K000011009
    Aug 1, 1996 Lane, P. [484], Cameroon K000073566
    Aug 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7093], Cameroon K000197927
    Aug 1, 1996 Cable, S. [755], Cameroon K000073565
    Aug 1, 1996 Elad, M. [114], Cameroon K000073569
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5728], Cameroon K000437022
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5917], Cameroon K000460038
    Jan 1, 1996 Etuge, M. [1156], Cameroon K000436659
    Jan 1, 1996 Groves, M. [113], Cameroon K000436450
    Jan 1, 1993 Harris, D.J. [3871], Cameroon K000518294
    Jan 1, 1993 Wheatley, J.I. [659], Cameroon K000436971
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [46], Cameroon K000518292
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [40], Cameroon K000518293
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [16], Cameroon K000518291
    Jan 1, 1993 Nkeng, P. [63], Cameroon K000518290
    Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [124], Cameroon K000011860
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1134], Cameroon K000437771
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1347], Cameroon K000436968
    Jan 1, 1992 Nguembock, F. [71], Cameroon K000011861
    Dawkins, H.C. [476], Uganda 15558.000
    Gregory, H. [52], Nigeria 15556.000
    Maitland, T.D. [29], Cameroon K000093159
    Hutchinson, J. [129], Cameroon K000093161
    Hutchinson, J. [129], Cameroon K000093162
    Thomas, D.W. [2730], Cameroon K000093167
    Thomas, D.W. [2199], Cameroon K000093168
    Bamps, P. [1547], Cameroon K000093171
    Staudt, A. [482], Cameroon K000093160
    Thompson, S.A. [1332], Cameroon K000093164
    Dubois, R. [37], Mali K000386499
    Sihvonen, J. [111], Burkina Faso K000386497
    Brunt, M.A. [232], Cameroon K000093163
    Claussen, P. [s.n.], Minas Gerais Paullinia grandiflora K000037203

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 366 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Ibarra-Manríquez, G. & al. (2015). Lianas of Mexico Botanical Sciences 93: 365-417.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davies, F.G. & Verdcourt, B. (1998). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Dodonaea: 1-108.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Schnell in Ic. Pl. Afr. 36.
    • Radlk. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Sapindac. 247 (1931)
    • Chev. Bot. 148
    • —F.T.A. 1: 419
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Ibarra-Manríquez, G. & al. (2015). Lianas of Mexico Botanical Sciences 93: 365-417.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 164 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 423, fig., map on 422 (1994).
    • Vollesen in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 493, fig. 125.5 (1990).
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 310, fig. 96/2 (1983).
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 58 (1980).
    • F.G. Davies in Kew Bulletin 32: 429–431 (1978).
    • Fouilloy & Hallé in Fl. Cameroun 16: 13, t. 1/1–9 (1973)
    • Fouilloy & Hallé in Fl. Gabon 23: 13, t. 1/1–9 (1973).
    • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 512, t. 102 (1966).
    • Haerdi in Acta Trop., suppl. 8: 124 (1964).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 225 (1962).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 283 (1960).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 710, fig. 196 (1958).
    • Exell & Mendonça, Consp. Fl. Angol.: 73 (1954).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 343, fig. 127 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 560 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 401, fig. on 403 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 514 (1948).
    • Radlk. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 165: 247 (1931).
    • Radlk., Monogr. Paullinia: 135 (1895)
    • Taub. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 249 (1895).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 419 (1868).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 366 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0