1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Orthoclada P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to Zambia, S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–5-flowered, laterally compressed, falling entire at maturity; rhachilla adnate to the keels of the palea towards its base; florets glabrous, hermaphrodite, the uppermost smaller; lemmas 5–7-nerved, awnless; stamens 2–3.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, laterally compressed, imbricate, awnless, 1-5-flowered, with all florets both fertile and hermaphrodite except the uppermost one which is reduced; rhachilla glabrous or somewhat pubescent, not disarticulating between the florets; the internodes adnate to the base of the palea.
    Glume
    Glumes equal in size or the inferior one slightly shorter, keeled, 3-5-nerved, membranous to chartaceous, acute; the inferior narrowly to broadly lanceolate; the superior broadly lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 5-7-nerved, somewhat keeled or dorsally rounded, membranous to cartilaginous, elliptic or ovate-elliptic if expanded, acute or subobtuse, sometimes mucronulate; the lateral nerves usually faint.
    Palea
    Paleas slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-4-nerved, 2-keeled, laterally compressed, the keels close together, scaberulous along the keels.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, minute, cuneate, apex truncate, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens 2-3; anthers narrowly oblong.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis free, laterally compressed, obliquely elliptic-oblong in outline; embryo c. 1/4 the size of the caryopsis; hilum very minute, basal.
    Habit
    A perennial grass with erect or ascending culms.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous, truncate, short.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae with a short pseudopetiole; venation tessellate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences loose open panicles.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (1/1), or decumbent (1/1); 50-107.5-180 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a false petiole. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or oblong. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Primary panicle branches not whorled (1), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets, or 3-4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-9.5-12 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets, or 3-4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-9.5-12 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (1); herbaceous; keeled; 5-7 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acuminate (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets 1 in number; barren; linear.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 2-3 (1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

    Orthoclada P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 69 (1812)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Agrost.: 69, t. 14 fig. 9 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C. E. Hubbard in Hook., Ic. Pl. 35, t. 3419 (1940)
    • Ess. Agrost.: 69 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0