1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Oryza L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (12). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (5), or elongated (3). Culms erect (10), or geniculately ascending (10), or decumbent (8), or prostrate (1); robust (1/2), or of moderate stature (1/2); 30-107.1-300 cm long; spongy (4), or firm (14); rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (9), or erect (5), or falcate (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (17), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades linear (17), or lanceolate (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/1), or evident (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (17), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (17), or contracted (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (15), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or spreading (1/4); solitary (17/17). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; tip cupuliform (14/14), or lobed (2/14).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3), or linear (4), or lanceolate (12), or oblong (1); membranous (7/10), or herbaceous (1/10), or coriaceous (2/10); 1 -veined (13/13); emarginate (1/10), or acute (7/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (14/15), or awned (1/15). Fertile lemma elliptic (11), or oblong (6), or orbicular (3); laterally compressed; not gibbous (17), or gibbous (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (17); keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (8), or spinulose (10); eciliate (14), or ciliate (3), or hispid (1). Lemma surface granulose (3), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (4), or striate (1), or reticulate (11); glabrous (13), or hispidulous (5), or hispid (4); with simple hairs (8/9), or hooked hairs (1/9). Lemma margins interlocking with palea margins (9), or involute (9); eciliate (17), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex acute (2/14), or rostrate (11/14), or caudate (1/14); muticous (5), or awned (14); 1 -awned (14/14). Principal lemma awn straight (14/14), or flexuous (2/14). Palea 0.9-0.9778-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (16), or indurate (1); 3 -veined (17), or 5 -veined (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (17). Palea keels smooth (5/17), or scabrous (7/17), or spinulose (5/17). Palea surface glabrous (17), or pubescent (1). Palea apex muticous (14), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (4).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 6 (16/16). Stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (16/16); lanceolate (1/4), or ellipsoid (2/4), or oblong (1/4), or ovoid (1/4). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (10), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Erect annuals or perennials with flat leaf-blades and membranous ligules
    Inflorescences
    Panicle open or rather dense; branches numerous, racemose with shortly pedicelled spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3-flowered, strongly laterally compressed, falling entire from the pedicel; glumes absent or represented by obscure lips at the pedicel-tip; both lower florets represented only by narrow lemmas, these usually subulate or linear and much shorter than the spikelet
    Florets
    Upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma coriaceous, strongly keeled, prominently 5-nerved, with or without an awn; palea similar but narrower, keeled, 3-nerved; stamens 6; stigmas 2.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets shortly pedicelled, 1-flowered, solitary, laterally strongly compressed, deciduous or (in cultivated rice) persistent, hermaphrodite; rhachilla articulating above the rudimentary glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, reduced to a narrow entire or 2-lobed rim, forming a cup-shaped cavity at the apex of the pedicel, whitish, green or reddish in colour.
    Lemma
    Sterile lemmas 2, subequal in shape and size, usually very small (nearly as long as the spikelet only in one sp. from S. America), faintly 1-nerved or nerveless. Fertile lemmas 5-nerved (one pair of nerves very close to the margins), cymbiform, strongly keeled, coriaceous or rarely chartaceous, often tessellate or rugulose, usually awned, rarely awnless (in cultivated rice), usually with 2 short lateral protrusions at the apex; awn usually much longer than the spikelet, sometimes coloured, stiff or flexuous, often with a coloured basal callus.
    Palea
    Palea slightly shorter than the lemma, of the same consistency and indument but with the margins hyaline, 3- (rarely 5-) nerved, awnless, obtuse or acute to acuminate, usually tightly clasped by the inflexed margins of the lemma.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, small, obovate or lanceolate-elliptic.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, with the filaments free.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous.
    Stigma
    Stigmas pilose, large, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis (usually firmly enclosed by lemma and palea thus forming the “husk”), laterally compressed, oblong to oblong-elliptic in outline, whitish to brown or reddish; embryo very small; hilum large, linear.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial grasses, growing in a variety of moist habitats.
    Stem
    Culms few- to many-noded, erect or ascending, sometimes floating, often spongy, usually hollow between the nodes.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous, often lacerate, glabrous or pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, many-flowered, erect or drooping.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms decumbent; 50-90 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades coriaceous. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip discoid.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate. Fertile lemma oblong; coriaceous; keeled; 9 -veined. Lemma apex rostrate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn pungent. Palea 1 length of lemma; coriaceous; 4 -veined.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 6.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; isodiametric; biconvex. Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Tropical Asia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Arkansas, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, California, Chile Central, Comoros, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, France, Georgia, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krym, Louisiana, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Oklahoma, Palestine, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Virginia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Oryza L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Tateoka in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 76: 165 (1963).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 155 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 333 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 155 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Tateoka in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 76: 165 (1963)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 155 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0