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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (6), or perennial (12). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (5), or elongated (3). Culms erect (10), or geniculately ascending (10), or decumbent (8), or prostrate (1); robust (1/2), or of moderate stature (1/2); 30-107.1-300 cm long; spongy (4), or firm (14); rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (9), or erect (5), or falcate (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (17), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades linear (17), or lanceolate (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/1), or evident (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (17), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (17), or contracted (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (15), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or spreading (1/4); solitary (17/17). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; tip cupuliform (14/14), or lobed (2/14).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (8), or oblong (11), or ovate (4), or orbicular (1); laterally compressed; symmetrical (17), or gibbous (1); 1.5-6.881-12 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (16). Spikelet callus glabrous (12/12); base truncate (11/11); attached transversely (2/6), or attached obliquely (4/6). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (16), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3), or linear (4), or lanceolate (12), or oblong (1); membranous (7/10), or herbaceous (1/10), or coriaceous (2/10); 1 -veined (13/13); emarginate (1/10), or acute (7/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (14/15), or awned (1/15). Fertile lemma elliptic (11), or oblong (6), or orbicular (3); laterally compressed; not gibbous (17), or gibbous (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (17); keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (8), or spinulose (10); eciliate (14), or ciliate (3), or hispid (1). Lemma surface granulose (3), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (4), or striate (1), or reticulate (11); glabrous (13), or hispidulous (5), or hispid (4); with simple hairs (8/9), or hooked hairs (1/9). Lemma margins interlocking with palea margins (9), or involute (9); eciliate (17), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex acute (2/14), or rostrate (11/14), or caudate (1/14); muticous (5), or awned (14); 1 -awned (14/14). Principal lemma awn straight (14/14), or flexuous (2/14). Palea 0.9-0.9778-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (16), or indurate (1); 3 -veined (17), or 5 -veined (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (17). Palea keels smooth (5/17), or scabrous (7/17), or spinulose (5/17). Palea surface glabrous (17), or pubescent (1). Palea apex muticous (14), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 6 (16/16). Stigmas 2.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (16/16); lanceolate (1/4), or ellipsoid (2/4), or oblong (1/4), or ovoid (1/4). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1).
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (10), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Erect annuals or perennials with flat leaf-blades and membranous ligules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle open or rather dense; branches numerous, racemose with shortly pedicelled spikelets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3-flowered, strongly laterally compressed, falling entire from the pedicel; glumes absent or represented by obscure lips at the pedicel-tip; both lower florets represented only by narrow lemmas, these usually subulate or linear and much shorter than the spikelet
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma coriaceous, strongly keeled, prominently 5-nerved, with or without an awn; palea similar but narrower, keeled, 3-nerved; stamens 6; stigmas 2.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle often with simple raceme-like primary branches, the spikelets all alike, bisexual
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets with 1 fertile floret and 2 sterile lemmas, strongly laterally compressed; sterile lemmas up to half the length of the spikelet, subulate to narrowly ovate, coriaceous; fertile lemma coriaceous, strongly keeled, clasping the lateral nerves of the palea, awned or awnless; stamens 6.
Distribution
About 20 species in the tropics and subtropics.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets shortly pedicelled, 1-flowered, solitary, laterally strongly compressed, deciduous or (in cultivated rice) persistent, hermaphrodite; rhachilla articulating above the rudimentary glumes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2, reduced to a narrow entire or 2-lobed rim, forming a cup-shaped cavity at the apex of the pedicel, whitish, green or reddish in colour.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Sterile lemmas 2, subequal in shape and size, usually very small (nearly as long as the spikelet only in one sp. from S. America), faintly 1-nerved or nerveless. Fertile lemmas 5-nerved (one pair of nerves very close to the margins), cymbiform, strongly keeled, coriaceous or rarely chartaceous, often tessellate or rugulose, usually awned, rarely awnless (in cultivated rice), usually with 2 short lateral protrusions at the apex; awn usually much longer than the spikelet, sometimes coloured, stiff or flexuous, often with a coloured basal callus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Palea slightly shorter than the lemma, of the same consistency and indument but with the margins hyaline, 3- (rarely 5-) nerved, awnless, obtuse or acute to acuminate, usually tightly clasped by the inflexed margins of the lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, small, obovate or lanceolate-elliptic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, with the filaments free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas pilose, large, laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis (usually firmly enclosed by lemma and palea thus forming the “husk”), laterally compressed, oblong to oblong-elliptic in outline, whitish to brown or reddish; embryo very small; hilum large, linear.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial grasses, growing in a variety of moist habitats.
Morphology Stem
Culms few- to many-noded, erect or ascending, sometimes floating, often spongy, usually hollow between the nodes.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule membranous, often lacerate, glabrous or pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, many-flowered, erect or drooping.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms decumbent; 50-90 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades coriaceous. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip discoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 10-12 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus attached transversely.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate. Fertile lemma oblong; coriaceous; keeled; 9 -veined. Lemma apex rostrate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn pungent. Palea 1 length of lemma; coriaceous; 4 -veined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; isodiametric; biconvex. Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Tropical Asia.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Arkansas, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, California, Chile Central, Comoros, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, France, Georgia, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krym, Louisiana, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Oklahoma, Palestine, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Virginia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Oryza L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 155 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 333 (1753)
  • Tateoka in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 76: 165 (1963).

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 155 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 333 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 155 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 333 (1753)
  • Tateoka in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 76: 165 (1963)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0