1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Parapholis C.E.Hubb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Central Asia, N. Africa to Pakistan.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (1). Culms erect (4), or geniculately ascending (4); slender (1/1); 2-18.91-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (5), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted (4), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 5-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 10 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 11-14 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 15-20 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 21-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (1), or lax (5). Rhachis internodes oblong. Rhachis internode tip transverse. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-5.416-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-5.416-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes collateral; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (2); membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (5), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 1 length of lemma.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (5/5). Hilum elliptic (5/5).
    Distribution
    Europe (5), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, China Southeast, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Korea, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Mississippi, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Australia, Tasmania, Texas, Uruguay, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia

    Parapholis C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0