1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Pentameris P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cameroon, Ethiopia to S. Africa, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Peninsula, Amsterdam & St. Paul Islands.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (10), or perennial (73). Rhizomes absent (78), or short (2), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (65), or present (19). Culms erect (12/26), or geniculately ascending (7/26), or decumbent (7/26), or rambling (3/26); 3-46.19-400 cm long; firm (80), or woody (2). Lateral branches lacking (44/63), or sparse (9/63), or ample (14/63). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (81), or erect (1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform (26), or linear (57); herbaceous (73), or coriaceous (9); stiff (42), or firm (19), or flaccid (23). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (80), or pungent (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (80), or composed of racemes (2), or comprising only a few spikelets (1). Panicle open (62/80), or contracted (20/80), or spiciform (3/80). Racemes single (2/2); unilateral (2/2). Rhachis flattened (1/2), or subterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (2/2); 2 -rowed (2/2). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or deflexed (1/4); solitary (81), or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or pedicelled (80); 2 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels filiform (64/64).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (78); without rhachilla extension (71), or with a barren rhachilla extension (19). Spikelets lanceolate (10), or oblong (3), or ovate (1), or cuneate (68); laterally compressed; 2-8.152-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (17), or evident (64), or elongated (1); pubescent (70/72), or pilose (1/72), or bearded (1/72); truncate (1), or obtuse (80), or pungent (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (78); without rhachilla extension (71), or with a barren rhachilla extension (19). Spikelets lanceolate (10), or oblong (3), or ovate (1), or cuneate (68); laterally compressed; 2-8.152-26 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (17), or evident (64), or elongated (1); pubescent (70/72), or pilose (1/72), or bearded (1/72); truncate (1), or obtuse (80), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (81); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (78), or firmer than fertile lemma (3); parallel to lemmas (14), or gaping (68). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (11), or elliptic (68), or oblong (3); 1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (77), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (3); 1-keeled (77/77); 1 -veined (71/77), or 2 -veined (1/77), or 3 -veined (3/77), or 5 -veined (4/77), or 6-8 -veined (1/77). Lower glume lateral veins absent (70), or obscure (1), or distinct (11); without ribs (11/12), or ribbed (1/12). Lower glume surface smooth (73), or asperulous (18); glabrous (75), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (4), or pilose (4), or hirsute (3), or villous (3). Lower glume apex obtuse (6), or acute (24), or acuminate (51), or attenuate (6), or setaceously attenuate (3). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (11), or elliptic (68), or oblong (3); 1-2.11-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (77), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (81), or membranous margins (1); 1-keeled (77/77); 1 -veined (71/77), or 2 -veined (1/77), or 3 -veined (4/77), or 5 -veined (3/77), or 6-8 -veined (2/77). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (11/12), or ribbed (1/12). Upper glume surface smooth (74), or asperulous (17); glabrous (75), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (5), or pilose (4), or hirsute (3), or villous (3); with simple hairs (10/12), or tubercle-based hairs (2/12). Upper glume apex obtuse (6), or acute (23), or acuminate (51), or attenuate (6), or setaceously attenuate (3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (81); membranous (81), or chartaceous (1); without keel (78), or keeled (4); 3 -veined (3/77), or 5 -veined (64/77), or 6 -veined (63/77), or 7 -veined (71/77), or 8 -veined (67/77), or 9 -veined (68/77), or 11 -veined (1/77). Lemma midvein eciliate (75), or ciliate (7), or pubescent (1). Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (9), or pilose (13), or hirsute (1), or villous (48); hairy on back (56/68), or on veins (9/68), or between veins (1/68), or between veins but central interspaces glabrous (1/68), or in lines (1/68); with simple hairs (66/68), or clavate hairs (2/68). Lemma margins eciliate (74), or ciliate (10). Lemma apex entire (11), or erose (1), or dentate (11), or lobed (62); 2 -fid (70/73), or 3 -fid (3/73); incised 0.1-0.3329-0.5 of lemma length; truncate (6/23), or obtuse (3/23), or acute (10/23), or acuminate (4/23); muticous (14), or awned (69); 1 -awned (1/69), or 3 -awned (68/69), or 4-5 -awned (1/69). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (69/69); straight (2/69), or curved (1/69), or geniculate (66/69). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (67/67). Palea 0.8-0.9875-1.1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (13/13). Palea keels separated (79), or approximate (3); eciliate (78), or puberulous (3), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (54), or pubescent (26), or pilose (3), or villous (7). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (80), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (80/80); fleshy (66/66); glabrous (78/80), or ciliate (3/80). Anthers 3 (75/75). Ovary glabrous (1/2), or pubescent on apex (1/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (68/78), or free brittle pericarp (10/78); fusiform (3/4), or orbicular (1/4); isodiametric (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (81), or Temperate Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or Antarctica (1).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence a panicle, open or contracted to spiciform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2-flowered with rhachilla extended as a minute bristle; glumes subequal, as long as the spikelet; floret callus short, obtuse; lemmas dorsally rounded, finely 5–9(11)-nerved, pilose on the back, 2-lobed at the apex, awned from the sinus and also with a fine straight bristle from the inner side of each lobe, rarely awnless; palea about as long as the body of the lemma, the keels glabrous, wingless.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform to linear
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, open or contracted
    Spikelets
    Glumes narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate in profile, hyaline to thinly scarious, keeled, 1–3-nerved, acute or acuminate; lemmas lanceolate to oblong in profile, membranous with involute margins, finely 5–9-nerved, 2-lobed, awned from the sinus of the lobes and also with a fine straight bristle from the inner side of each lobe; awns geniculate, usually with a twisted column; palea narrow; callus short, bearded. Spikelets 2-flowered, enclosed by the glumes, glistening; rhachilla produced as a minute bristle

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    California, New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia

    Pentameris P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Linder, H.P. [4407], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719827
    Linder, H.P. [7898], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719841 Unknown type material
    Cole [s.n.], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719846
    Esterhuysen, E. [26349], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719828
    Esterhuysen, E. [33498], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719829
    Esterhuysen, E. [28696], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719830
    Esterhuysen, E. [28668], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719831
    Esterhuysen, E. [33498], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719832
    Esterhuysen, E. [26395], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719833
    Esterhuysen, E. [26681], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719842
    Esterhuysen, E. [30475], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719848
    Esterhuysen, E. [28662], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719849
    Esterhuysen, E. [35762], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719850
    Hilliard, O.M. [13622], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719851
    Burkart, A. [24390], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719840
    Boucher, C. [2033], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719843
    Schlechter, R. [5594], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719844
    s.coll. [3187], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719837
    Rehm, S. [386], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719835
    Acocks, J.P.H. [15852], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719838
    Druger, F.J. [KR.845], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719834
    Bryna, A.M. [164], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719836
    Dirtritrn, A. [585], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719839
    Wilson, G.L. [s.n.], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719845
    Sharf, H.T. [1051], South Africa Pentaschistis K000719847

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 92 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0