1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Perotis Aiton

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (13), or perennial (2). Rhizomes absent (13), or elongated (1). Culms erect (4/13), or geniculately ascending (8/13), or decumbent (5/13); 5-35.78-90 cm long; firm (12), or wiry (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades linear (3), or lanceolate, or ovate (4); stiff (1), or firm (13). Leaf-blade apex muticous (13), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (11), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Racemes single; multilateral. Rhachis angular (1/1). Spikelet packing crowded (8), or contiguous (7), or lax (2), or distant (1). Spikelets appressed (1), or ascending (9), or spreading (9), or deflexed (1); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (5), or pedicelled (9). Pedicels oblong (7/7).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear, or lanceolate (13); subterete; 1.2-4.282-11 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1), or oblong (4), or linear (8); pubescent (3/3); base obtuse (2/4), or acute (1/4), or pungent (1/4).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear, or lanceolate (13); subterete; 1.2-4.282-11 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1), or oblong (4), or linear (8); pubescent (3/3); base obtuse (2/4), or acute (1/4), or pungent (1/4).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (12); 1 length of upper glume; membranous (13/13); without keels (13/13); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (6), or puberulous (2), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (6). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/13), or acuminate (12/13); awned. Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (12); 1.5-2.386-3.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (13/13); without keels (13/13); 1 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (6), or puberulous (2), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (6). Upper glume apex acuminate (13/13); awned; 1 -awned.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline (13), or membranous (1); without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse (2), or acute (12). Palea hyaline (12), or membranous (2); 0 -veined (3/3); without keels (3), or 2-keeled (11).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (13/13).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (13/13); linear (1/10), or fusiform (9/10); isodiametric (3/11), or laterally compressed (1/11), or dorsally compressed (3/11), or flattened (4/11); biconvex (1/1). Embryo 0.3 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (11), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (3).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence a delicate 'bottle-brush' false raceme (though appearing to be a true raceme); racemelets subsessile, deciduous, comprising a single spikelet.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered, linear-lanceolate, with or without a stipitiform basal callus; glumes well developed, subequal, membranous, 1-nerved, longer than the floret, tipped by a long slender awn (that of the inferior glume usually the longer); lemma hyaline, 1-nerved, awnless.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear-lanceolate, almost as long as the glumes at maturity.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or sometimes perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, broadest at the base and subamplexicaul; ligule a short membranous rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a delicate “ bottle-brush ” spike, the spikelets subsessile on the main axis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets single, all alike, linear-lanceolate, with or without a stipitate basal callus; glumes subequal, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, membranous, 1-nerved, each tipped by a long slender awn (that of the lower glume usually the longer) prettily tinged with violet; lemma usually 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet, lanceolate, hyaline, 1-nerved; stamens 3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear-lanceolate, almost as long as the glumes at maturity.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending; 15-35 cm long. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes single; multilateral. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; tip cupuliform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.3-1.8 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus base obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.3-1.8 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus base obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume elliptic; 2-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; keeled; 1 -veined. Lemma apex attenuate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed. Embryo 0.4 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending; 20-50 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath. Racemes single; erect; multilateral. Rhachis angular. Spikelets spreading; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; like a bird's head; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2.5-2.75 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus cuneate; pilose; base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; like a bird's head; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2.5-2.75 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus cuneate; pilose; base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume elliptic; gibbous; 1.2-1.3 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous; transversely waisted. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 1.6-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein pectinately ciliate. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.8 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 2. Stigmas 2; sparsely hairy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Tropical Asia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Guinea-Bissau

    Perotis Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hort. Kew. 1: 85 (1789)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Hort. Kew. 1: 85 (1789).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hort. Kew. 1: 85 (1789).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hort. Kew. 1: 85 (1789)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0