1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Phalaris L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets solitary, shortly pedicelled, laterally compressed, 1-flowered, but usually with 1-2 sterile and much reduced florets; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, not or only spuriously extended beyond the terminal floret; florets usually 3, the first and second rudimentary, minute, the terminal one hermaphrodite.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, equal to subequal, 3-nerved, persistent, completely enclosing the floret (s), cymbi-form, often strongly keeled, membranous, with the keel broadly winged.
    Lemma
    Sterile lemmas very small (often scale-like), subulate to lanceolate, membranous with a callous base, the fertile one 5-nerved, membranous at first, later coriaceous to indurate, often glossy, broadly ovate, acute.
    Palea
    Palea c. as long as the lemma, 2-nerved, hyaline, usually ciliolate along the keels.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, hyaline.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary elliptic in outline, glabrous; styles distinct, long; stigmas plumose, slender, apically exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovate to ovate-elliptic in outline, somewhat laterally flattened, enclosed by the lemma and palea; hilum oblong or linear, short; embryo 1/4-1/3 the length of the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous, usually truncate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a many-flowered rather condensed spike-like panicle, often capitate.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Spikelets
    Glumes usually glabrous, papery, boat-shaped, keeled, the keel often broadened into a wing; sterile florets up to about half as long as the fertile lemma, subulate or chaffy, usually pubescent, sometimes 1 or both reduced to a fleshy scale at the base of the fertile floret; fertile lemma glabrous or pubescent, often shiny.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (11), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (13), or short (2), or elongated (2). Culms erect (6/6), or geniculately ascending (4/6); 10-88.52-200 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (16), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (16), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (16), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (1), or spiciform (16), or capitate (2). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (16), or deciduous spikelet clusters (2). Spikelets appressed (2/3), or ascending (1/3); solitary (16), or subtended by an involucre (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (10), or pedicelled (8); 1 in the cluster (2/2), or 2 in the cluster (1/2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (2/2); 5 in the cluster (1/2), or 6 in the cluster (2/2). Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets (2/2). Pedicels linear (1/1); tip cupuliform (1/1).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (15), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (14); laterally compressed; 2.9-6.046-10 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (16); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (16/16). Companion sterile spikelets absent (15), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (2/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (14); laterally compressed; 2.9-6.046-10 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (16); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (16/16).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (16/16); exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (5), or winged on keel (14); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4-5 -veined (6/16). Lower glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Lower glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1.2-1.52-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (4), or winged on keel (15); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4-5 -veined (6/16). Upper glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Upper glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (14/14); without significant palea (14/14). Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3/13), or linear (7/13), or lanceolate (1/13), or ovate (2/13); 0.1-0.3895-0.75 length of fertile lemma; membranous (2/4), or fleshy (2/4); acute (3/3). Fertile lemma elliptic (15), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (15/16), or subterete (1/16); cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (15). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (15), or acuminate (1). Palea cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (14).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (10/10); membranous (10/10). Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (15/15).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). Hilum linear (15/15).
    Distribution
    Europe (8), or Africa (10), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (4), or North America (9), or South America (11), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Extinct in:

    Jawa, Juan Fernández Is.

    Introduced into:

    Bermuda, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile North, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Free State, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Jawa, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Tristan da Cunha, Venezuela, Victoria, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Phalaris L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 29 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 54 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Anderson in Iowa State Journ. Sci. 36: 1 (1961)
    • Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0