1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Phleum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Europe, Africa, South Georgia, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (9), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (11), or short (2), or elongated (2). Culms erect (12), or geniculately ascending (9), or decumbent (1); 1-30.96-150 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3/3), or sparse (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (13), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (12), or an inflated leaf-sheath (5); exserted (14), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle spiciform. Spikelets spreading (1/1), or deflexed (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong (12/12).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (12), or with a barren rhachilla extension (3). Spikelets lanceolate (4), or elliptic (5), or oblong (8), or ovate (1), or obovate (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; symmetrical (14), or gibbous (1); 1.5-3.229-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (12), or with a barren rhachilla extension (3). Spikelets lanceolate (4), or elliptic (5), or oblong (8), or ovate (1), or obovate (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; symmetrical (14), or gibbous (1); 1.5-3.229-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (1), or exceeding apex of florets (14); parallel to lemmas (12), or recurved at apex (2), or gaping (1). Lower glume elliptic (4), or oblong (10), or obovate (1), or cuneate (1); 0.7-0.9867-1 length of upper glume; membranous (13), or coriaceous (2); 1-keeled; wingless (14), or winged on keel (1); 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (13), or ribbed (2). Lower glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (3); glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex truncate (6), or obtuse (1), or acute (2), or acuminate (6); muticous (2), or mucronate (3), or awned (10). Upper glume elliptic (4), or oblong (10), or obovate (1), or cuneate (1); 0.8-1.848-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (13), or coriaceous (2); with undifferentiated margins (10), or hyaline margins (4), or membranous margins (1); 1-keeled; 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (4), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (8), or pectinately ciliate (3). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (13), or ribbed (2). Upper glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (3); glabrous (12), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex truncate (6), or obtuse (1), or acute (2), or acuminate (6); muticous (2), or mucronate (3), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong (8), or ovate (7); membranous (14), or coriaceous (1); without keel (14), or keeled (1); 1 -veined (1), or 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (14), or 6-7 -veined (3). Lemma surface glabrous (3), or puberulous (7), or pubescent (6); hairy on back (11/13), or on veins (2/13); with simple hairs (10/13), or clavate hairs (3/13). Lemma apex truncate (4), or obtuse (10), or rostrate (1); muticous (14), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 0.6-0.95-1 length of lemma. Palea surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 2 (1), or 3 (14). Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/2), or ovoid (1/2); isodiametric (1/2), or dorsally compressed (1/2). Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe (11), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (4), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (2), or Antarctica (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Sinai

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Maine, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Newfoundland, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Québec, Romania, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amur, Antipodean Is., Arkansas, Bermuda, Brazil South, Chatham Is., Connecticut, Crozet Is., Delaware, District of Columbia, Egypt, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Louisiana, Magadan, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Rhode I., Sakhalin, South Australia, South Carolina, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

    Phleum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 59 (1753)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0