1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Polytoca R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Assam to S. China and N. Australia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (1). Culms 30-100-150 cm long; with prop roots (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male terminal and mixed axillary inflorescences. Synflorescence simple (1), or compound (1); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; herbaceous. Racemes single, or digitate (1); bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 3-6 fertile spikelets on each, or 7 fertile spikelets on each (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (1), or subterete (1). Rhachis internodes oblong (1), or clavate (1); bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip cupuliform (1), or crateriform (1). Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches (1), or bisexual branches; with male above, or below (1). Spikelets embracing internode; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in a cluster. Pedicels fused to internode. Male inflorescence of subdigitate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; ovate (1/1). Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous (1), or awned (1).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; separately deciduous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 6-6.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; separately deciduous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 6-6.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic (1), or oblong (1); indurate; 2-keeled; winged on keel. Lower glume surface not waisted (1), or laterally waisted (1); pubescent (1), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire, or erose (1); emarginate (1), or obtuse. Upper glume elliptic (1), or oblong (1); coriaceous; without keels (1/1); 7 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex acuminate (1), or caudate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (1/1); without significant palea (1/1). Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong (1/1); cartilaginous (1/1); acuminate (1/1). Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline (1), or cartilaginous (1); without keel; 9 -veined (1/1). Lemma apex acuminate (1), or cuspidate (1). Palea 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline; 1 -veined (1/1); without keels.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; square (1/1); flattened (1/1); concavo-convex (1/1). Hilum punctiform.
    Male
    Male inflorescence of subdigitate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; ovate (1/1). Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous (1), or awned (1).
    Distribution
    Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (3). Rhizomes absent (8), or elongated (1). Culms erect (6), or decumbent (3); reed-like (1/5), or robust (4/5); 20-120.2-300 cm long; with prop roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (2/3). Culm-internodes terete (1/3), or channelled (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/4), or sparse (1/4), or ample (3/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (5), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (8), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear (8), or lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); firm (8), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (4/4).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Synflorescence simple (5), or compound (4); paniculate (3/3). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary (7), or axillary (2); subtended by a spatheole; exserted (2), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (6), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (2/7), or lanceolate (5/7); herbaceous (3/5), or scarious (2/5). Peduncle widened at apex (3/3). Racemes single; unilateral (2/2); bearing few fertile spikelets (8), or many spikelets (1); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (3/7), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (4/7), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (2/7), or 4-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/7). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (1/7), or subterete (6/7). Rhachis internodes linear (7), or columnar (1), or oblong (1); bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip transverse (7/7); cupuliform (5), or crateriform (4). Sexes mixed (1), or segregated (8); on bisexual branches (8/8); with male above (8/8). Spikelets embracing internode; solitary (1), or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0 in the cluster (2), or 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 1 in a cluster (2), or 2 in a cluster (8), or 3 in a cluster (2). Pedicels free (1), or fused to internode (8); filiform (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by barren pedicels (2), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (3); deciduous with the fertile (2/2). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (7); dorsally compressed; 4-8.728-18 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (8), or square (1); base truncate; simple (1), or with central peg (8); attached transversely. Male spikelets resembling female (2), or distinct from female (7); lanceolate (5/7), or elliptic (1/7), or oblong (1/7), or ovate (1/7), or obovate (1/7). Male spikelet glumes 2.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by barren pedicels (2), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (3); deciduous with the fertile (2/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (7); dorsally compressed; 4-8.728-18 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (8), or square (1); base truncate; simple (1), or with central peg (8); attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (3), or indurate (5); without keels (5), or 2-keeled (4); wingless (2), or winged on keel (4), or winged on margins (3). Lower glume surface smooth (6), or asperulous (3); not waisted (7), or transversely waisted (2). Lower glume apex entire (8), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (3/8), or obtuse (5/8), or acute (1/8). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (6), or orbicular (1); membranous (1), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (2), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (3); without keels (3/3); 3-4 -veined (1/4), or 5 -veined (2/4), or 6-7 -veined (1/4), or 9-14 -veined (1/4), or 15 -veined (2/4), or 16-17 -veined (1/4). Upper glume apex acute (3/7), or acuminate (1/7), or cuspidate (3/7).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (6); hyaline (7), or membranous (2); 3 -veined (5/5), or 4-5 -veined (1/5); acute (2/3), or cuspidate (1/3). Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate (6), or oblong (3), or ovate (3); hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (2/5), or 3 -veined (3/5). Lemma apex truncate (1/6), or acute (5/6). Palea 1 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (1/1); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (5). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (3/3). Anthers 3 (4/4).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (5/5); oblong (1/1); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (5/5).
    Male
    Male spikelets resembling female (2), or distinct from female (7); lanceolate (5/7), or elliptic (1/7), or oblong (1/7), or ovate (1/7), or obovate (1/7). Male spikelet glumes 2.
    Distribution
    Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia, or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Fiji, Hawaii

    Polytoca R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J.J.Bennett & R.Brown, Pl. Jav. Rar.: 20 (1838)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0