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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Mexico to Honduras. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[FTEA]

Papaveraceae, G. L. Lucas (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962

Morphology General Habit
Herbs erect up to about 1.2 m. high, often branching near the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± sheathing (amplexicaul); prickles if present mainly on the veins of the abaxial surface ; leaves with midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish-white on the adaxial surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm. in diameter, subtended by 1 or 2 foliaceous bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, caducous, covered to a greater or lesser degree with prickles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow more rarely cream-white, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens numerous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm. long in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 1.2–4.5 × 2.5 × 2.0 cm. ; valves 4–6, which split away from the vascular strands for about 1/3 of their length, exposing a cage-like frame of these vascular strands, attached apically to the persistent stigma ; outer valve-surface prickly in all tropical East African specimens seen (see Note below).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds up to 2 mm. in diameter, subspherical with a small beak at one end ; testa pitted in rows radiating from the micropyle end.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Waste places, roadsides and abandoned cultivated ground ; 0–1800 m.
Distribution
a native of Central America introduced as a weed in East Africa as in most other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T8 U2 U4 Z

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect herbs to c. 1.2 m high, glaucous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with ± clasping base, often with prickles on veins beneath; midrib and veins irregularly outlined in greyish white on the upper leaf surface
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4.5 cm in diam., subtended by 1 or 2 leafy bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, prickly
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 6, yellow or cream, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma and style persistent, 1–3 mm long in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ± oblong, 1.2–4.5 cm long, dehiscing by 4–6 valves in apical part, leaving behind a cage-like frame of vascular strands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose with a small beak at one end, up to 2 mm in diam.
Distribution
Specimens seen only from N3, but no doubt occurring also in other regions. Pantropical weed of Central American origin with seeds rich in oil.
Vernacular
Mexican poppy, prickly poppy (English)

[FWTA]

Papaveraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A prickly glaucous erect herb
Morphology General Exudate
Yellow juice
Morphology Leaves
Leaves semi-amplexicaul, pinnately lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule smooth or setose, 3–4 cm. long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pitted-reticulate.

[FZ]

Papaveraceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glaucous herb up to 1 m. tall.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, ± amplexicaul, sinuate-pinnatifid with prickly teeth, often variegated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 3.5–4.5 cm. in diam., bright yellow, cream or white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3 x 1.5 cm., ellipsoid.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 75 - 2210 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Vernacular
Tissly.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 75 - 2210 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

>

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Cardosanto.

Argemone mexicana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [11239], Brazil K001072256
Jan 1, 1975 Harley, R.M. [16380], Brazil K001072255
Jan 1, 1972 Pires, J.M. [58170a], Brazil K001072258
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4869], Brazil K001072262
Hinton, G.B. [3827], Mexico K001134565
Hinton, G.B. [3715], Mexico K001134567
Hinton, G.B. [284], Mexico K001134566
Hinton, G.B. [7283], Mexico K001134554
Hinton, G.B. [10014], Mexico K001134555
Hinton, G.B. [9999], Mexico K001134556
Lowne, B.T. [61/87], Mexico K001134543
McWhirter, J. [147], Madagascar 31920.000
Mori, S.A. [11239], Brazil K001072254
Agra, M.F. [1319], Brazil K001072253
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001072257
Pickersgill, B. [RU72/467], Brazil K001072259
Pringle, C.G. [8321], Mexico K001134545
Gardner, G. [1915], Brazil K001072260
Gardner, G. [1915], Brazil K001072261
Gehrt, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001072252
Gaumer, G.F. [s.n.], Mexico K001134558
Gaumer, G.F. [562], Mexico K001134564
Gaumer, G.F. [562], Mexico K001134546
Miers, J. [3222], Brazil K001072263
Gentry, H.S. [1337], Mexico K001134553
Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134469
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], Nepal K001129019
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], Nepal K001129020
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8126], India K001129021
Mason, H.L. [1716], Mexico K001134548
Nelson, E.W. [4134], Mexico K001134547
Gonzalez Ortega, J. [133], Mexico K001134550
Valdez, P. [16], Mexico K001134563
Martínez S., E.M. [24866], Mexico K001134568
Cope, T.A. [RBG 576], Great Britain K000914603
Arsene [584], Mexico K001134549
Arsene [s.n.], Mexico K001134552
Sousa S., M. [5638], Mexico K001134557
Palmer, E. [152], Mexico K001134560
Palmer, E. [477], Mexico K001134561
Palmer, E. [111], Mexico K001134559
Palmer, E. [111], Mexico K001134562
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129016
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129017
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8126] K001129018
Abbon [s.n.], Mexico K001134544
Curtiss, A.H. [5653], Florida Argemone leiocarpa var. ochroleucoides K000653204

First published in Sp. Pl.: 508 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Fischer, E. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Papaveraceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Cullen, J. (1966). Flora Iranica 34: 1-27. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 145.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 54

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Fischer, E. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Papaveraceae: 1-23. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • (2019). http://www.abcjournal.org/index.php/BothaliaABC/article/view/39/33 epublication.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
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  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
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  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
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  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
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  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
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Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ownbey in Mem. Torr. Bot, Club 21(1) : 29, fig. 2 (1958).
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  • L., Sp. Pl. : 508 (1753).

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