1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Secale L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is E. Central & E. Europe, Medit. to NW. China and W. Himalaya, S. Africa.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (4). Culms erect (5/5), or geniculately ascending (3/5), or decumbent (1/5); 15-65.62-150 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; erect (1), or ascending (7); bilateral. Rhachis tough (2), or fragile at the nodes (7). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (2), or contiguous (6). Rhachis internodes oblong; falling with spikelet above (7/7). Spikelets ascending (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (6); laterally compressed; 8-13.56-18 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (6), or breaking up at maturity (2); deciduous with accessory branch structures (6/6); disarticulating below each fertile floret (2/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (6); laterally compressed; 8-13.56-18 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (6), or breaking up at maturity (2); deciduous with accessory branch structures (6/6); disarticulating below each fertile floret (2/2).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (7), or reaching apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma (7), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1). Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (4), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (1); 1 length of upper glume; membranous (7), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled (7/7); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous (5), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex acuminate (7/7); muticous (1/7), or mucronate (2/7), or awned (5/7). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (4), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (1); 0.6-0.8714-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (7), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled (7/7); 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (4), or ciliate (4). Upper glume surface glabrous (6), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex acuminate (7/7); muticous (1/7), or mucronate (1/7), or awned (6/7); 1 -awned (6/6).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (6); coriaceous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (1), or pectinately ciliate (7). Lemma surface smooth (7), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (6), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Palea 0.6-0.9125-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (5), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1); eciliate (5), or ciliolate (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (1), or distinct from fertile (7); 1 in number (7/7); barren (7/7); linear (1/1). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (6/7), or awned (1/7).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; ciliate. Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/2), or obovoid (1/2). Embryo 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (4), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (1), or North America (2), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Florida, France, Georgia, Greenland, Gulf of Guinea Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

    Secale L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 84 (1753)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0